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Title: Ultra-High Temperature ContinuousReactors based on Electro-thermal FluidizedBed Concept

This paper presents the results of research and development in high-temperature (i.e. 2,000- 3,000ºС) continuous furnaces operating on the principle of electro-thermal fluidized bed for the purification of recycled, finely sized carbon materials. The basis of this fluidized bed furnace is specific electrical resistance and a new correlation has been developed to predict specific electrical resistance for the natural graphite-based precursors entering the fluidized bed reactor This correlation has been validated with the data from a fully functional pilot furnace whose throughput capacity is 10 kg per hour built as part of this work. Data collected in the course of graphite refining experiments demonstrated that difference between the calculated and measured values of specific electrical resistance of fluidized bed does not exceed 25%. It was concluded that due to chaotic nature of electro-thermal fluidized bed reactors this discrepancy is acceptable. The fluid mechanics of the three types of operating regimes, have been described. The numerical relationships obtained as part of this work allowed proposing an algorithm for selection of technological operational modes with large- scale high-temperature furnaces rated for throughputs of several tons of product per hour. Optimizations proposed now allow producing natural graphite-based end product with the purity levelmore » of 99.98+ wt%C which is the key passing criteria for applications in the advanced battery markets.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [4]
  1. National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine (Ukraine)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  3. American Energy Technologies, Co., Arlington Heights, IL (United States)
  4. Materials Research Centre, Ltd., Kiev (Ukraine)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0098-2202; R&D Project: 91029
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Fluids Engineering
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 138; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0098-2202
American Association of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20)
Country of Publication:
United States
OSTI Identifier: