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Title: Enhanced electrical activation in In-implanted Ge by C co-doping

At high dopant concentrations in Ge, electrically activating all implanted dopants is a major obstacle in the fulfillment of high-performance Ge-channel complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices. In this letter, we demonstrate a significant increase in the electrically-active dopant fraction in In-implanted Ge by co-doping with the isovalent element C. Electrical measurements have been correlated with x-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results in addition to density functional theory simulations. With C þ In co-doping, the electrically active fraction was doubled and tripled at In concentrations of 0.2 and 0.7 at. %, respectively. This marked improvement was the result of C-In pair formation such that In-induced strain in the Ge lattice was reduced while the precipitation of In and the formation of In-V clusters were both suppressed.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [5] ;  [1]
  1. Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  3. Katholieke Univ. Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Inst. voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica
  4. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Australian Synchrotron
  5. RMIT Univ., Melbourne (Australia)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
BNL-111930-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951; R&D Project: 20685
Grant/Contract Number:
SC00112704
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 107; Journal Issue: 21; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CMOS; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; co-doping; Ge
OSTI Identifier:
1341590