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Title: Measurement of the Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetry in p + p W ± / Z 0 at RHIC

In this paper, we present the measurement of the transverse single-spin asymmetry of weak boson production in transversely polarized proton-proton collisions at $$\sqrt{s}$$ = 500 GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The measured observable is sensitive to the Sivers function, one of the transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions, which is predicted to have the opposite sign in proton-proton collisions from that observed in deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering. In conclusion, these data provide the first experimental investigation of the nonuniversality of the Sivers function, fundamental to our understanding of QCD.
Authors:
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Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
BNL-112275-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007; R&D Project: PO 004; KB0202012
Grant/Contract Number:
SC00112704; AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 13; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
Contributing Orgs:
STAR Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider; perturbative QCD; QCD in nuclear reactions; protons; spin
OSTI Identifier:
1341525
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1245053; OSTI ID: 1459369

Adamczyk, L., Adkins, J. K., Agakishiev, G., Aggarwal, M. M., Ahammed, Z., Alekseev, I., Aparin, A., Arkhipkin, D., Aschenauer, E. C., Attri, A., Averichev, G. S., Bai, X., Bairathi, V., Banerjee, A., Bellwied, R., Bhasin, A., Bhati, A. K., Bhattarai, P., Bielcik, J., Bielcikova, J., Bland, L. C., Bordyuzhin, I. G., Bouchet, J., Brandenburg, J. D., Brandin, A. V., Bunzarov, I., Butterworth, J., Caines, H., Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M., Campbell, J. M., Cebra, D., Chakaberia, I., Chaloupka, P., Chang, Z., Chattopadhyay, S., Chen, X., Chen, J. H., Cheng, J., Cherney, M., Christie, W., Contin, G., Crawford, H. J., Das, S., De Silva, L. C., Debbe, R. R., Dedovich, T. G., Deng, J., Derevschikov, A. A., di Ruzza, B., Didenko, L., Dilks, C., Dong, X., Drachenberg, J. L., Draper, J. E., Du, C. M., Dunkelberger, L. E., Dunlop, J. C., Efimov, L. G., Engelage, J., Eppley, G., Esha, R., Evdokimov, O., Eyser, O., Fatemi, R., Fazio, S., Federic, P., Fedorisin, J., Feng, Z., Filip, P., Fisyak, Y., Flores, C. E., Fulek, L., Gagliardi, C. A., Garand, D., Geurts, F., Gibson, A., Girard, M., Greiner, L., Grosnick, D., Gunarathne, D. S., Guo, Y., Gupta, A., Gupta, S., Guryn, W., Hamad, A., Hamed, A., Haque, R., Harris, J. W., He, L., Heppelmann, S., Heppelmann, S., Hirsch, A., Hoffmann, G. W., Hofman, D. J., Horvat, S., Huang, X., Huang, H. Z., Huang, B., Huang, T., Huck, P., Humanic, T. J., Igo, G., Jacobs, W. W., Jang, H., Jentsch, A., Jia, J., Jiang, K., Judd, E. G., Kabana, S., Kalinkin, D., Kang, K., Kauder, K., Ke, H. W., Keane, D., Kechechyan, A., Khan, Z. H., Kikoła, D. P., Kisel, I., Kisiel, A., Kochenda, L., Koetke, D. D., Kosarzewski, L. K., Kraishan, A. F., Kravtsov, P., Krueger, K., Kumar, L., Lamont, M. A. C., Landgraf, J. M., Landry, K. D., Lauret, J., Lebedev, A., Lednicky, R., Lee, J. H., Li, C., Li, Y., Li, W., Li, X., Li, X., Lin, T., Lisa, M. A., Liu, F., Ljubicic, T., Llope, W. J., Lomnitz, M., Longacre, R. S., Luo, X., Ma, R., Ma, L., Ma, G. L., Ma, Y. G., Magdy, N., Majka, R., Manion, A., Margetis, S., Markert, C., McDonald, D., Meehan, K., Mei, J. C., Minaev, N. G., Mioduszewski, S., Mishra, D., Mohanty, B., Mondal, M. M., Morozov, D. A., Mustafa, M. K., Nandi, B. K., Nasim, Md., Nayak, T. K., Nigmatkulov, G., Niida, T., Nogach, L. V., Noh, S. Y., Novak, J., Nurushev, S. B., Odyniec, G., Ogawa, A., Oh, K., Okorokov, V. A., Olvitt, D., Page, B. S., Pak, R., Pan, Y. X., Pandit, Y., Panebratsev, Y., Pawlik, B., Pei, H., Perkins, C., Pile, P., Pluta, J., Poniatowska, K., Porter, J., Posik, M., Poskanzer, A. M., Pruthi, N. K., Putschke, J., Qiu, H., Quintero, A., Ramachandran, S., Raniwala, R., Raniwala, S., Ray, R. L., Ritter, H. G., Roberts, J. B., Rogachevskiy, O. V., Romero, J. L., Roy, A., Ruan, L., Rusnak, J., Rusnakova, O., Sahoo, N. R., Sahu, P. K., Sakrejda, I., Salur, S., Sandweiss, J., Sarkar, A., Schambach, J., Scharenberg, R. P., Schmah, A. M., Schmidke, W. B., Schmitz, N., Seger, J., Seyboth, P., Shah, N., Shahaliev, E., Shanmuganathan, P. V., Shao, M., Sharma, M. K., Sharma, B., Shen, W. Q., Shi, Z., Shi, S. S., Shou, Q. Y., Sichtermann, E. P., Sikora, R., Simko, M., Singha, S., Skoby, M. J., Smirnov, D., Smirnov, N., Solyst, W., Song, L., Sorensen, P., Spinka, H. M., Srivastava, B., Stanislaus, T. D. S., Stepanov, M., Stock, R., Strikhanov, M., Stringfellow, B., Sumbera, M., Summa, B., Sun, Y., Sun, Z., Sun, X. M., Surrow, B., Svirida, D. N., Tang, A. H., Tang, Z., Tarnowsky, T., Tawfik, A., Thäder, J., Thomas, J. H., Timmins, A. R., Tlusty, D., Todoroki, T., Tokarev, M., Trentalange, S., Tribble, R. E., Tribedy, P., Tripathy, S. K., Tsai, O. D., Ullrich, T., Underwood, D. G., Upsal, I., Van Buren, G., van Nieuwenhuizen, G., Vandenbroucke, M., Varma, R., Vasiliev, A. N., Vertesi, R., Videbæk, F., Vokal, S., Voloshin, S. A., Vossen, A., Wang, J. S., Wang, Y., Wang, F., Wang, Y., Wang, H., Wang, G., Webb, J. C., Webb, G., Wen, L., Westfall, G. D., Wieman, H., Wissink, S. W., Witt, R., Wu, Y., Xiao, Z. G., Xie, X., Xie, W., Xin, K., Xu, N., Xu, Y. F., Xu, Z., Xu, Q. H., Xu, J., Xu, H., Yang, Q., Yang, Y., Yang, S., Yang, Y., Yang, C., Yang, Y., Ye, Z., Ye, Z., Yepes, P., Yi, L., Yip, K., Yoo, I. -K., Yu, N., Zbroszczyk, H., Zha, W., Zhang, S., Zhang, Z., Zhang, S., Zhang, J. B., Zhang, Y., Zhang, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, X. P., Zhao, J., Zhong, C., Zhou, L., Zhu, X., Zoulkarneeva, Y., and Zyzak, M.. Measurement of the Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetry in p↑+p→W±/Z0 at RHIC. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.132301.
Adamczyk, L., Adkins, J. K., Agakishiev, G., Aggarwal, M. M., Ahammed, Z., Alekseev, I., Aparin, A., Arkhipkin, D., Aschenauer, E. C., Attri, A., Averichev, G. S., Bai, X., Bairathi, V., Banerjee, A., Bellwied, R., Bhasin, A., Bhati, A. K., Bhattarai, P., Bielcik, J., Bielcikova, J., Bland, L. C., Bordyuzhin, I. G., Bouchet, J., Brandenburg, J. D., Brandin, A. V., Bunzarov, I., Butterworth, J., Caines, H., Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M., Campbell, J. M., Cebra, D., Chakaberia, I., Chaloupka, P., Chang, Z., Chattopadhyay, S., Chen, X., Chen, J. H., Cheng, J., Cherney, M., Christie, W., Contin, G., Crawford, H. J., Das, S., De Silva, L. C., Debbe, R. R., Dedovich, T. G., Deng, J., Derevschikov, A. A., di Ruzza, B., Didenko, L., Dilks, C., Dong, X., Drachenberg, J. L., Draper, J. E., Du, C. M., Dunkelberger, L. E., Dunlop, J. C., Efimov, L. G., Engelage, J., Eppley, G., Esha, R., Evdokimov, O., Eyser, O., Fatemi, R., Fazio, S., Federic, P., Fedorisin, J., Feng, Z., Filip, P., Fisyak, Y., Flores, C. E., Fulek, L., Gagliardi, C. A., Garand, D., Geurts, F., Gibson, A., Girard, M., Greiner, L., Grosnick, D., Gunarathne, D. S., Guo, Y., Gupta, A., Gupta, S., Guryn, W., Hamad, A., Hamed, A., Haque, R., Harris, J. W., He, L., Heppelmann, S., Heppelmann, S., Hirsch, A., Hoffmann, G. W., Hofman, D. J., Horvat, S., Huang, X., Huang, H. Z., Huang, B., Huang, T., Huck, P., Humanic, T. J., Igo, G., Jacobs, W. W., Jang, H., Jentsch, A., Jia, J., Jiang, K., Judd, E. G., Kabana, S., Kalinkin, D., Kang, K., Kauder, K., Ke, H. W., Keane, D., Kechechyan, A., Khan, Z. H., Kikoła, D. P., Kisel, I., Kisiel, A., Kochenda, L., Koetke, D. D., Kosarzewski, L. K., Kraishan, A. F., Kravtsov, P., Krueger, K., Kumar, L., Lamont, M. A. C., Landgraf, J. M., Landry, K. D., Lauret, J., Lebedev, A., Lednicky, R., Lee, J. H., Li, C., Li, Y., Li, W., Li, X., Li, X., Lin, T., Lisa, M. A., Liu, F., Ljubicic, T., Llope, W. J., Lomnitz, M., Longacre, R. S., Luo, X., Ma, R., Ma, L., Ma, G. L., Ma, Y. G., Magdy, N., Majka, R., Manion, A., Margetis, S., Markert, C., McDonald, D., Meehan, K., Mei, J. C., Minaev, N. G., Mioduszewski, S., Mishra, D., Mohanty, B., Mondal, M. M., Morozov, D. A., Mustafa, M. K., Nandi, B. K., Nasim, Md., Nayak, T. K., Nigmatkulov, G., Niida, T., Nogach, L. V., Noh, S. Y., Novak, J., Nurushev, S. B., Odyniec, G., Ogawa, A., Oh, K., Okorokov, V. A., Olvitt, D., Page, B. S., Pak, R., Pan, Y. X., Pandit, Y., Panebratsev, Y., Pawlik, B., Pei, H., Perkins, C., Pile, P., Pluta, J., Poniatowska, K., Porter, J., Posik, M., Poskanzer, A. M., Pruthi, N. K., Putschke, J., Qiu, H., Quintero, A., Ramachandran, S., Raniwala, R., Raniwala, S., Ray, R. L., Ritter, H. G., Roberts, J. B., Rogachevskiy, O. V., Romero, J. L., Roy, A., Ruan, L., Rusnak, J., Rusnakova, O., Sahoo, N. R., Sahu, P. K., Sakrejda, I., Salur, S., Sandweiss, J., Sarkar, A., Schambach, J., Scharenberg, R. P., Schmah, A. M., Schmidke, W. B., Schmitz, N., Seger, J., Seyboth, P., Shah, N., Shahaliev, E., Shanmuganathan, P. V., Shao, M., Sharma, M. K., Sharma, B., Shen, W. Q., Shi, Z., Shi, S. S., Shou, Q. Y., Sichtermann, E. P., Sikora, R., Simko, M., Singha, S., Skoby, M. J., Smirnov, D., Smirnov, N., Solyst, W., Song, L., Sorensen, P., Spinka, H. M., Srivastava, B., Stanislaus, T. D. S., Stepanov, M., Stock, R., Strikhanov, M., Stringfellow, B., Sumbera, M., Summa, B., Sun, Y., Sun, Z., Sun, X. M., Surrow, B., Svirida, D. N., Tang, A. H., Tang, Z., Tarnowsky, T., Tawfik, A., Thäder, J., Thomas, J. H., Timmins, A. R., Tlusty, D., Todoroki, T., Tokarev, M., Trentalange, S., Tribble, R. E., Tribedy, P., Tripathy, S. K., Tsai, O. D., Ullrich, T., Underwood, D. G., Upsal, I., Van Buren, G., van Nieuwenhuizen, G., Vandenbroucke, M., Varma, R., Vasiliev, A. N., Vertesi, R., Videbæk, F., Vokal, S., Voloshin, S. A., Vossen, A., Wang, J. S., Wang, Y., Wang, F., Wang, Y., Wang, H., Wang, G., Webb, J. C., Webb, G., Wen, L., Westfall, G. D., Wieman, H., Wissink, S. W., Witt, R., Wu, Y., Xiao, Z. G., Xie, X., Xie, W., Xin, K., Xu, N., Xu, Y. F., Xu, Z., Xu, Q. H., Xu, J., Xu, H., Yang, Q., Yang, Y., Yang, S., Yang, Y., Yang, C., Yang, Y., Ye, Z., Ye, Z., Yepes, P., Yi, L., Yip, K., Yoo, I. -K., Yu, N., Zbroszczyk, H., Zha, W., Zhang, S., Zhang, Z., Zhang, S., Zhang, J. B., Zhang, Y., Zhang, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, X. P., Zhao, J., Zhong, C., Zhou, L., Zhu, X., Zoulkarneeva, Y., & Zyzak, M.. Measurement of the Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetry in p↑+p→W±/Z0 at RHIC. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.132301.
Adamczyk, L., Adkins, J. K., Agakishiev, G., Aggarwal, M. M., Ahammed, Z., Alekseev, I., Aparin, A., Arkhipkin, D., Aschenauer, E. C., Attri, A., Averichev, G. S., Bai, X., Bairathi, V., Banerjee, A., Bellwied, R., Bhasin, A., Bhati, A. K., Bhattarai, P., Bielcik, J., Bielcikova, J., Bland, L. C., Bordyuzhin, I. G., Bouchet, J., Brandenburg, J. D., Brandin, A. V., Bunzarov, I., Butterworth, J., Caines, H., Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M., Campbell, J. M., Cebra, D., Chakaberia, I., Chaloupka, P., Chang, Z., Chattopadhyay, S., Chen, X., Chen, J. H., Cheng, J., Cherney, M., Christie, W., Contin, G., Crawford, H. J., Das, S., De Silva, L. C., Debbe, R. R., Dedovich, T. G., Deng, J., Derevschikov, A. A., di Ruzza, B., Didenko, L., Dilks, C., Dong, X., Drachenberg, J. L., Draper, J. E., Du, C. M., Dunkelberger, L. E., Dunlop, J. C., Efimov, L. G., Engelage, J., Eppley, G., Esha, R., Evdokimov, O., Eyser, O., Fatemi, R., Fazio, S., Federic, P., Fedorisin, J., Feng, Z., Filip, P., Fisyak, Y., Flores, C. E., Fulek, L., Gagliardi, C. A., Garand, D., Geurts, F., Gibson, A., Girard, M., Greiner, L., Grosnick, D., Gunarathne, D. S., Guo, Y., Gupta, A., Gupta, S., Guryn, W., Hamad, A., Hamed, A., Haque, R., Harris, J. W., He, L., Heppelmann, S., Heppelmann, S., Hirsch, A., Hoffmann, G. W., Hofman, D. J., Horvat, S., Huang, X., Huang, H. Z., Huang, B., Huang, T., Huck, P., Humanic, T. J., Igo, G., Jacobs, W. W., Jang, H., Jentsch, A., Jia, J., Jiang, K., Judd, E. G., Kabana, S., Kalinkin, D., Kang, K., Kauder, K., Ke, H. W., Keane, D., Kechechyan, A., Khan, Z. H., Kikoła, D. P., Kisel, I., Kisiel, A., Kochenda, L., Koetke, D. D., Kosarzewski, L. K., Kraishan, A. F., Kravtsov, P., Krueger, K., Kumar, L., Lamont, M. A. C., Landgraf, J. M., Landry, K. D., Lauret, J., Lebedev, A., Lednicky, R., Lee, J. H., Li, C., Li, Y., Li, W., Li, X., Li, X., Lin, T., Lisa, M. A., Liu, F., Ljubicic, T., Llope, W. J., Lomnitz, M., Longacre, R. S., Luo, X., Ma, R., Ma, L., Ma, G. L., Ma, Y. G., Magdy, N., Majka, R., Manion, A., Margetis, S., Markert, C., McDonald, D., Meehan, K., Mei, J. C., Minaev, N. G., Mioduszewski, S., Mishra, D., Mohanty, B., Mondal, M. M., Morozov, D. A., Mustafa, M. K., Nandi, B. K., Nasim, Md., Nayak, T. K., Nigmatkulov, G., Niida, T., Nogach, L. V., Noh, S. Y., Novak, J., Nurushev, S. B., Odyniec, G., Ogawa, A., Oh, K., Okorokov, V. A., Olvitt, D., Page, B. S., Pak, R., Pan, Y. X., Pandit, Y., Panebratsev, Y., Pawlik, B., Pei, H., Perkins, C., Pile, P., Pluta, J., Poniatowska, K., Porter, J., Posik, M., Poskanzer, A. M., Pruthi, N. K., Putschke, J., Qiu, H., Quintero, A., Ramachandran, S., Raniwala, R., Raniwala, S., Ray, R. L., Ritter, H. G., Roberts, J. B., Rogachevskiy, O. V., Romero, J. L., Roy, A., Ruan, L., Rusnak, J., Rusnakova, O., Sahoo, N. R., Sahu, P. K., Sakrejda, I., Salur, S., Sandweiss, J., Sarkar, A., Schambach, J., Scharenberg, R. P., Schmah, A. M., Schmidke, W. B., Schmitz, N., Seger, J., Seyboth, P., Shah, N., Shahaliev, E., Shanmuganathan, P. V., Shao, M., Sharma, M. K., Sharma, B., Shen, W. Q., Shi, Z., Shi, S. S., Shou, Q. Y., Sichtermann, E. P., Sikora, R., Simko, M., Singha, S., Skoby, M. J., Smirnov, D., Smirnov, N., Solyst, W., Song, L., Sorensen, P., Spinka, H. M., Srivastava, B., Stanislaus, T. D. S., Stepanov, M., Stock, R., Strikhanov, M., Stringfellow, B., Sumbera, M., Summa, B., Sun, Y., Sun, Z., Sun, X. M., Surrow, B., Svirida, D. N., Tang, A. H., Tang, Z., Tarnowsky, T., Tawfik, A., Thäder, J., Thomas, J. H., Timmins, A. R., Tlusty, D., Todoroki, T., Tokarev, M., Trentalange, S., Tribble, R. E., Tribedy, P., Tripathy, S. K., Tsai, O. D., Ullrich, T., Underwood, D. G., Upsal, I., Van Buren, G., van Nieuwenhuizen, G., Vandenbroucke, M., Varma, R., Vasiliev, A. N., Vertesi, R., Videbæk, F., Vokal, S., Voloshin, S. A., Vossen, A., Wang, J. S., Wang, Y., Wang, F., Wang, Y., Wang, H., Wang, G., Webb, J. C., Webb, G., Wen, L., Westfall, G. D., Wieman, H., Wissink, S. W., Witt, R., Wu, Y., Xiao, Z. G., Xie, X., Xie, W., Xin, K., Xu, N., Xu, Y. F., Xu, Z., Xu, Q. H., Xu, J., Xu, H., Yang, Q., Yang, Y., Yang, S., Yang, Y., Yang, C., Yang, Y., Ye, Z., Ye, Z., Yepes, P., Yi, L., Yip, K., Yoo, I. -K., Yu, N., Zbroszczyk, H., Zha, W., Zhang, S., Zhang, Z., Zhang, S., Zhang, J. B., Zhang, Y., Zhang, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, X. P., Zhao, J., Zhong, C., Zhou, L., Zhu, X., Zoulkarneeva, Y., and Zyzak, M.. 2016. "Measurement of the Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetry in p↑+p→W±/Z0 at RHIC". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.132301. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1341525.
@article{osti_1341525,
title = {Measurement of the Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetry in p↑+p→W±/Z0 at RHIC},
author = {Adamczyk, L. and Adkins, J. K. and Agakishiev, G. and Aggarwal, M. M. and Ahammed, Z. and Alekseev, I. and Aparin, A. and Arkhipkin, D. and Aschenauer, E. C. and Attri, A. and Averichev, G. S. and Bai, X. and Bairathi, V. and Banerjee, A. and Bellwied, R. and Bhasin, A. and Bhati, A. K. and Bhattarai, P. and Bielcik, J. and Bielcikova, J. and Bland, L. C. and Bordyuzhin, I. G. and Bouchet, J. and Brandenburg, J. D. and Brandin, A. V. and Bunzarov, I. and Butterworth, J. and Caines, H. and Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M. and Campbell, J. M. and Cebra, D. and Chakaberia, I. and Chaloupka, P. and Chang, Z. and Chattopadhyay, S. and Chen, X. and Chen, J. H. and Cheng, J. and Cherney, M. and Christie, W. and Contin, G. and Crawford, H. J. and Das, S. and De Silva, L. C. and Debbe, R. R. and Dedovich, T. G. and Deng, J. and Derevschikov, A. A. and di Ruzza, B. and Didenko, L. and Dilks, C. and Dong, X. and Drachenberg, J. L. and Draper, J. E. and Du, C. M. and Dunkelberger, L. E. and Dunlop, J. C. and Efimov, L. G. and Engelage, J. and Eppley, G. and Esha, R. and Evdokimov, O. and Eyser, O. and Fatemi, R. and Fazio, S. and Federic, P. and Fedorisin, J. and Feng, Z. and Filip, P. and Fisyak, Y. and Flores, C. E. and Fulek, L. and Gagliardi, C. A. and Garand, D. and Geurts, F. and Gibson, A. and Girard, M. and Greiner, L. and Grosnick, D. and Gunarathne, D. S. and Guo, Y. and Gupta, A. and Gupta, S. and Guryn, W. and Hamad, A. and Hamed, A. and Haque, R. and Harris, J. W. and He, L. and Heppelmann, S. and Heppelmann, S. and Hirsch, A. and Hoffmann, G. W. and Hofman, D. J. and Horvat, S. and Huang, X. and Huang, H. Z. and Huang, B. and Huang, T. and Huck, P. and Humanic, T. J. and Igo, G. and Jacobs, W. W. and Jang, H. and Jentsch, A. and Jia, J. and Jiang, K. and Judd, E. G. and Kabana, S. and Kalinkin, D. and Kang, K. and Kauder, K. and Ke, H. W. and Keane, D. and Kechechyan, A. and Khan, Z. H. and Kikoła, D. P. and Kisel, I. and Kisiel, A. and Kochenda, L. and Koetke, D. D. and Kosarzewski, L. K. and Kraishan, A. F. and Kravtsov, P. and Krueger, K. and Kumar, L. and Lamont, M. A. C. and Landgraf, J. M. and Landry, K. D. and Lauret, J. and Lebedev, A. and Lednicky, R. and Lee, J. H. and Li, C. and Li, Y. and Li, W. and Li, X. and Li, X. and Lin, T. and Lisa, M. A. and Liu, F. and Ljubicic, T. and Llope, W. J. and Lomnitz, M. and Longacre, R. S. and Luo, X. and Ma, R. and Ma, L. and Ma, G. L. and Ma, Y. G. and Magdy, N. and Majka, R. and Manion, A. and Margetis, S. and Markert, C. and McDonald, D. and Meehan, K. and Mei, J. C. and Minaev, N. G. and Mioduszewski, S. and Mishra, D. and Mohanty, B. and Mondal, M. M. and Morozov, D. A. and Mustafa, M. K. and Nandi, B. K. and Nasim, Md. and Nayak, T. K. and Nigmatkulov, G. and Niida, T. and Nogach, L. V. and Noh, S. Y. and Novak, J. and Nurushev, S. B. and Odyniec, G. and Ogawa, A. and Oh, K. and Okorokov, V. A. and Olvitt, D. and Page, B. 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abstractNote = {In this paper, we present the measurement of the transverse single-spin asymmetry of weak boson production in transversely polarized proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 500 GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The measured observable is sensitive to the Sivers function, one of the transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions, which is predicted to have the opposite sign in proton-proton collisions from that observed in deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering. In conclusion, these data provide the first experimental investigation of the nonuniversality of the Sivers function, fundamental to our understanding of QCD.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.132301},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 13,
volume = 116,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {4}
}