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Title: Linking microstructural evolution and macro-scale friction behavior in metals [Predicting the friction behavior of metals using a microstructural evolution model]

A correlation is established between the macro-scale friction regimes of metals and a transition between two dominant atomistic mechanisms of deformation. Metals tend to exhibit bi-stable friction behavior—low and converging or high and diverging. These general trends in behavior are shown to be largely explained using a simplified model based on grain size evolution, as a function of contact stress and temperature, and are demonstrated for self-mated pure copper and gold sliding contacts. Specifically, the low-friction regime (where µ < 0.5) is linked to the formation of ultra-nanocrystalline surface films (10–20 nm), driving toward shear accommodation by grain boundary sliding. Above a critical combination of stress and temperature—demonstrated to be a material property—shear accommodation transitions to dislocation dominated plasticity and high friction, with µ > 0.5. We utilize a combination of experimental and computational methods to develop and validate the proposed structure–property relationship. As a result, this quantitative framework provides a shift from phenomenological to mechanistic and predictive fundamental understanding of friction for crystalline materials, including engineering alloys.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  2. Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
SAND-2017-0377J
Journal ID: ISSN 0022-2461; PII: 569
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 52; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-2461
Publisher:
Springer
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE
OSTI Identifier:
1341410