skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Combining experiment and optical simulation in coherent X-ray nanobeam characterization of Si/SiGe semiconductor heterostructures

Abstract

Here, the highly coherent and tightly focused x-ray beams produced by hard x-ray light sources enable the nanoscale characterization of the structure of electronic materials but are accompanied by significant challenges in the interpretation of diffraction and scattering patterns. X-ray nanobeams exhibit optical coherence combined with a large angular divergence introduced by the x-ray focusing optics. The scattering of nanofocused x-ray beams from intricate semiconductor heterostructures produces a complex distribution of scattered intensity. We report here an extension of coherent xray optical simulations of convergent x-ray beam diffraction patterns to arbitrary x-ray incident angles to allow the nanobeam diffraction patterns of complex heterostructures to be simulated faithfully. These methods are used to extract the misorientation of lattice planes and the strain of individual layers from synchrotron x-ray nanobeam diffraction patterns of Si/SiGe heterostructures relevant to applications in quantum electronic devices. The systematic interpretation of nanobeam diffraction patterns from semiconductor heterostructures presents a new opportunity in characterizing and ultimately designing electronic materials.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1340989
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1356344; OSTI ID: 1421259
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357; FG02-04ER46147; DE‐FG02‐03ER46028
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 120; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; x-ray nanobeam diffraction; optical simulation; semiconductor heterostructure

Citation Formats

Tilka, J. A., Park, J., Ahn, Y., Pateras, A., Sampson, K. C., Savage, D. E., Prance, J. R., Simmons, C. B., Coppersmith, S. N., Eriksson, M. A., Lagally, M. G., Holt, M. V., and Evans, P. G. Combining experiment and optical simulation in coherent X-ray nanobeam characterization of Si/SiGe semiconductor heterostructures. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4955043.
Tilka, J. A., Park, J., Ahn, Y., Pateras, A., Sampson, K. C., Savage, D. E., Prance, J. R., Simmons, C. B., Coppersmith, S. N., Eriksson, M. A., Lagally, M. G., Holt, M. V., & Evans, P. G. Combining experiment and optical simulation in coherent X-ray nanobeam characterization of Si/SiGe semiconductor heterostructures. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4955043.
Tilka, J. A., Park, J., Ahn, Y., Pateras, A., Sampson, K. C., Savage, D. E., Prance, J. R., Simmons, C. B., Coppersmith, S. N., Eriksson, M. A., Lagally, M. G., Holt, M. V., and Evans, P. G. Wed . "Combining experiment and optical simulation in coherent X-ray nanobeam characterization of Si/SiGe semiconductor heterostructures". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4955043. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1340989.
@article{osti_1340989,
title = {Combining experiment and optical simulation in coherent X-ray nanobeam characterization of Si/SiGe semiconductor heterostructures},
author = {Tilka, J. A. and Park, J. and Ahn, Y. and Pateras, A. and Sampson, K. C. and Savage, D. E. and Prance, J. R. and Simmons, C. B. and Coppersmith, S. N. and Eriksson, M. A. and Lagally, M. G. and Holt, M. V. and Evans, P. G.},
abstractNote = {Here, the highly coherent and tightly focused x-ray beams produced by hard x-ray light sources enable the nanoscale characterization of the structure of electronic materials but are accompanied by significant challenges in the interpretation of diffraction and scattering patterns. X-ray nanobeams exhibit optical coherence combined with a large angular divergence introduced by the x-ray focusing optics. The scattering of nanofocused x-ray beams from intricate semiconductor heterostructures produces a complex distribution of scattered intensity. We report here an extension of coherent xray optical simulations of convergent x-ray beam diffraction patterns to arbitrary x-ray incident angles to allow the nanobeam diffraction patterns of complex heterostructures to be simulated faithfully. These methods are used to extract the misorientation of lattice planes and the strain of individual layers from synchrotron x-ray nanobeam diffraction patterns of Si/SiGe heterostructures relevant to applications in quantum electronic devices. The systematic interpretation of nanobeam diffraction patterns from semiconductor heterostructures presents a new opportunity in characterizing and ultimately designing electronic materials.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4955043},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 1,
volume = 120,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Ordering of nanostressors on free-standing silicon nanomembranes and nanoribbons
journal, October 2010


Bragg x-ray ptychography of a silicon crystal: Visualization of the dislocation strain field and the production of a vortex beam
journal, March 2013


Magnetic field dependence of valley splitting in realistic Si∕SiGe quantum wells
journal, November 2006

  • Friesen, Mark; Eriksson, M. A.; Coppersmith, S. N.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 89, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2387975

Influence of misfit dislocations on the surface morphology of Si 1− x Ge x films
journal, February 1995

  • Lutz, M. A.; Feenstra, R. M.; LeGoues, F. K.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 66, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.114112

SiGe Technology: Heteroepitaxy and High-Speed Microelectronics
journal, August 2000


Nanoscale Distortions of Si Quantum Wells in Si/SiGe Quantum-Electronic Heterostructures
journal, July 2012

  • Evans, P. G.; Savage, D. E.; Prance, J. R.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 24, Issue 38
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201833

Observation of polar vortices in oxide superlattices
journal, January 2016

  • Yadav, A. K.; Nelson, C. T.; Hsu, S. L.
  • Nature, Vol. 530, Issue 7589
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature16463

Modeling of kinematic diffraction from a thin silicon film illuminated by a coherent, focused X-ray nanobeam
journal, April 2010

  • Ying, Andrew; Osting, Braxton; Noyan, I. C.
  • Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol. 43, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1107/S0021889810008459

Strain Imaging of Nanoscale Semiconductor Heterostructures with X-Ray Bragg Projection Ptychography
journal, April 2014


Efficient modeling of Bragg coherent x-ray nanobeam diffraction
journal, January 2015

  • Hruszkewycz, S. O.; Holt, M. V.; Allain, M.
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.40.003241

Symmetry in Strain Engineering of Nanomembranes: Making New Strained Materials
journal, June 2011

  • Paskiewicz, Deborah M.; Scott, Shelley A.; Savage, Donald E.
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 5, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn2009672

Direct evidence of strain transfer for InAs island growth on compliant Si substrates
journal, April 2015

  • Marçal, L. A. B.; Richard, M. -I.; Magalhães-Paniago, R.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 106, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4918615

Imaging Structure and Composition Homogeneity of 300 mm SiGe Virtual Substrates for Advanced CMOS Applications by Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy
journal, April 2015

  • Zoellner, Marvin H.; Richard, Marie-Ingrid; Chahine, Gilbert A.
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 7, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1021/am508968b

Quantitative Nanoscale Imaging of Lattice Distortions in Epitaxial Semiconductor Heterostructures Using Nanofocused X-ray Bragg Projection Ptychography
journal, September 2012

  • Hruszkewycz, S. O.; Holt, M. V.; Murray, C. E.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 12, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl303201w

Structural refinement of superlattices from x-ray diffraction
journal, April 1992

  • Fullerton, Eric E.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Vanderstraeten, H.
  • Physical Review B, Vol. 45, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.45.9292

Electrostatic Coupling and Local Structural Distortions at Interfaces in Ferroelectric/Paraelectric Superlattices
journal, May 2012

  • Zubko, P.; Jecklin, N.; Torres-Pardo, A.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 12, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl3003717

Structural Mapping of Functional Ge Layers Grown on Graded SiGe Buffers for sub-10 nm CMOS Applications Using Advanced X-ray Nanodiffraction
journal, November 2015

  • Richard, Marie-Ingrid; Zoellner, Marvin H.; Chahine, Gilbert A.
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 7, Issue 48
  • DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b08645

Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields
journal, January 2006

  • Quiney, H. M.; Peele, A. G.; Cai, Z.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 2, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys218

Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal
journal, July 2006

  • Pfeifer, Mark A.; Williams, Garth J.; Vartanyants, Ivan A.
  • Nature, Vol. 442, Issue 7098
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature04867

Structural Consequences of Ferroelectric Nanolithography
journal, August 2011

  • Jo, Ji Young; Chen, Pice; Sichel, Rebecca J.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 11, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl2009873

Observation of Columnar Microstructure in Step-Graded Si 1 x Ge x / Si Films Using High-Resolution X-Ray Microdiffraction
journal, March 2002


Imaging of strain and lattice orientation by quick scanning X-ray microscopy combined with three-dimensional reciprocal space mapping
journal, March 2014

  • Chahine, Gilbert André; Richard, Marie-Ingrid; Homs-Regojo, Roberto Arturo
  • Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol. 47, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1107/S1600576714004506

The impact of interface roughness scattering and degeneracy in relaxed and strained Si n-channel MOSFETs
journal, August 2004


Germanium hut nanostressors on freestanding thin silicon membranes
journal, August 2005

  • Evans, P. G.; Tinberg, D. S.; Roberts, M. M.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 87, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2031941

Coherent x-ray wavefront reconstruction of a partially illuminated Fresnel zone plate
journal, January 2011

  • Mastropietro, F.; Carbone, D.; Diaz, A.
  • Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.19.019223

Dislocation engineering in SiGe on periodic and aperiodic Si(001) templates studied by fast scanning X-ray nanodiffraction
journal, January 2014

  • Mondiali, Valeria; Bollani, Monica; Cecchi, Stefano
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 104, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4862688

Controllable valley splitting in silicon quantum devices
journal, December 2006

  • Goswami, Srijit; Slinker, K. A.; Friesen, Mark
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys475

Embracing the quantum limit in silicon computing
journal, November 2011

  • Morton, John J. L.; McCamey, Dane R.; Eriksson, Mark A.
  • Nature, Vol. 479, Issue 7373
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature10681

Scanning x-ray microtopographs of misfit dislocations at SiGe/Si interfaces
journal, October 2001

  • Mooney, P. M.; Jordan-Sweet, J. L.; Christiansen, S. H.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 79, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1408601

Nondestructive three-dimensional imaging of crystal strain and rotations in an extended bonded semiconductor heterostructure
journal, November 2015


Electrode-stress-induced nanoscale disorder in Si quantum electronic devices
journal, June 2016

  • Park, J.; Ahn, Y.; Tilka, J. A.
  • APL Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4954054

Silicon quantum electronics
journal, July 2013

  • Zwanenburg, Floris A.; Dzurak, Andrew S.; Morello, Andrea
  • Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 85, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.85.961

Framework for three-dimensional coherent diffraction imaging by focused beam x-ray Bragg ptychography
journal, January 2011

  • Hruszkewycz, Stephan O.; Holt, Martin V.; Tripathi, Ash
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 36, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.36.002227

Microfabricated strained substrates for Ge epitaxial growth
journal, May 2005

  • Evans, P. G.; Rugheimer, P. P.; Lagally, M. G.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 97, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1894579

Formation of strain-induced quantum dots in gated semiconductor nanostructures
journal, August 2015

  • Thorbeck, Ted; Zimmerman, Neil M.
  • AIP Advances, Vol. 5, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4928320

Metamorphic materials for quantum computing
journal, March 2016

  • Deelman, Peter W.; Edge, Lisa F.; Jackson, Clayton A.
  • MRS Bulletin, Vol. 41, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1557/mrs.2016.28