skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: New State of Nuclear Matter: Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies From Charged Particle Density to Jet Quenching

Abstract

This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic ow; followed by hard probe measurements: high-pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy favor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species as a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly-interacting medium is created in central Au + Au collisions at p sNN = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental ow results from Au + Au at p sNN = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are importantmore » and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, =s 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p + A, d + Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both facilities RHIC and the LHC is on detailed exploration of the properties of this new state of nuclear matter, the QGP.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1340419
Report Number(s):
BNL-113306-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 2190-5444
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC00112704
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
European Physical Journal Plus
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 131; Journal ID: ISSN 2190-5444
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; Quarks; gluons; collisions; QCD; Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

Citation Formats

Nouicer, R. New State of Nuclear Matter: Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies From Charged Particle Density to Jet Quenching. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. https://doi.org/10.1140/epjp/i2016-16070-2.
Nouicer, R. New State of Nuclear Matter: Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies From Charged Particle Density to Jet Quenching. United States. https://doi.org/10.1140/epjp/i2016-16070-2
Nouicer, R. Mon . "New State of Nuclear Matter: Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies From Charged Particle Density to Jet Quenching". United States. https://doi.org/10.1140/epjp/i2016-16070-2. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1340419.
@article{osti_1340419,
title = {New State of Nuclear Matter: Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies From Charged Particle Density to Jet Quenching},
author = {Nouicer, R.},
abstractNote = {This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic ow; followed by hard probe measurements: high-pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy favor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species as a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly-interacting medium is created in central Au + Au collisions at p sNN = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental ow results from Au + Au at p sNN = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, =s 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p + A, d + Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both facilities RHIC and the LHC is on detailed exploration of the properties of this new state of nuclear matter, the QGP.},
doi = {10.1140/epjp/i2016-16070-2},
journal = {European Physical Journal Plus},
number = ,
volume = 131,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Quantum chromodynamics and the theory of superdense matter
journal, May 1980


The physics of the quark-gluon plasma
journal, October 1986


Dark matter of weakly interacting massive particles and the QCD equation of state
journal, April 2005


The QCD equation of state with dynamical quarks
journal, November 2010

  • Borsányi, Szabolcs; Endrődi, Gergely; Fodor, Zoltán
  • Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2010, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1007/JHEP11(2010)077

Full result for the QCD equation of state with <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd"><mml:mn>2</mml:mn><mml:mo>+</mml:mo><mml:mn>1</mml:mn></mml:math> flavors
journal, March 2014


Equation of state in ( 2 + 1 )-flavor QCD
journal, November 2014


Shock waves and mach cones in fast nucleus-nucleus collisions
journal, December 1975

  • Baumgardt, H. G.; Schott, J. U.; Sakamoto, Y.
  • Zeitschrift f�r Physik A Atoms and Nuclei, Vol. 273, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF01435578

Highly relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions: The central rapidity region
journal, January 1983


Quark–gluon plasma and color glass condensate at RHIC? The perspective from the BRAHMS experiment
journal, August 2005


The PHOBOS perspective on discoveries at RHIC
journal, August 2005


RHIC project overview
journal, March 2003

  • Harrison, M.; Ludlam, T.; Ozaki, S.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 499, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(02)01937-X

New forms of QCD matter discovered at RHIC
journal, March 2005


Measurements of the Nuclear Modification Factor for Jets in Pb + Pb Collisions at s NN = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS Detector
journal, February 2015


Gravitational collapse, chaos in CFT correlators and the information paradox
journal, June 2014


Observation of long-range, near-side angular correlations in proton-proton collisions at the LHC
journal, September 2010

  • Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.
  • Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2010, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1007/JHEP09(2010)091

Long-range angular correlations of π, K and p in p–Pb collisions at <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd"><mml:msqrt><mml:msub><mml:mrow><mml:mi>s</mml:mi></mml:mrow><mml:mrow><mml:mi mathvariant="normal">NN</mml:mi></mml:mrow></mml:msub></mml:msqrt><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mn>5.02</mml:mn><mml:mtext> TeV</mml:mtext></mml:math>
journal, October 2013


Two-particle correlations in p-Pb collisions at the LHC with ALICE
journal, May 2014


J / ψ Production versus Centrality, Transverse Momentum, andRapidity in Au + Au Collisions at s N N = 200 GeV
journal, June 2007


Transverse momentum spectra of <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:mi>J</mml:mi><mml:mo stretchy="false">/</mml:mo><mml:mi>ψ</mml:mi></mml:math> in heavy-ion collisions
journal, June 2008


<mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:mi>J</mml:mi><mml:mo stretchy="false">/</mml:mo><mml:mi>ψ</mml:mi></mml:math> transverse momentum distribution in high energy nuclear collisions
journal, July 2009


Shadowing and absorption effects on J / ψ production in d A collisions
journal, May 2005


A quantitative analysis of charmonium suppression in nuclear collisions
journal, April 1997

  • Kharzeev, D.; Lourenço, C.; Nardi, M.
  • Zeitschrift f�r Physik C Particles and Fields, Vol. 74, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s002880050392

EPS09 — A new generation of NLO and LO nuclear parton distribution functions
journal, April 2009


Modeling of J / ψ modifications in deuteron-nucleus collisions at high energies
journal, October 2011


Evidence of final-state suppression of high-p $_{_{\rm T}}$ hadrons in Au + Au collisions using d + Au measurements at RHIC
journal, February 2004


Entropy Analysis in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions
journal, January 2013

  • Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahmad, A.; Chandra, Anuj
  • Advances in High Energy Physics, Vol. 2013
  • DOI: 10.1155/2013/836071

High-energy scattering of protons by nuclei
journal, January 1970


Glauber model and the heavy ion reaction cross section
journal, May 2003


Glauber Modeling in High-Energy Nuclear Collisions
journal, November 2007


Parameterization of deformed nuclei for Glauber modeling in relativistic heavy ion collisions
journal, October 2015


Systematics of Global Observables in Cu+Cu and Au+Au Collisions at RHIC Energies
conference, January 2006

  • Nouicer, Rachid
  • PARTICLES AND NUCLEI: Seventeenth Internatinal Conference on Particles and Nuclei, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2220196

Energy dependence of pion and kaon production in central Pb+Pb collisions
journal, November 2002


Energy and centrality dependence of deuteron and proton production in Pb + Pb collisions at relativistic energies
journal, February 2004


Charged-Particle Multiplicity Density at Midrapidity in Central Pb-Pb Collisions at s N N = 2.76 TeV
journal, December 2010


QCD saturation at the LHC: Comparisons of models to p+p and A+A data and predictions for p+Pb collisions
journal, March 2012


Hadron production in nuclear collisions at RHIC and high-density QCD
journal, May 2001


Entanglement entropy and entropy production in the color glass condensate framework
journal, August 2015


Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in d+Au and p+p collisions at
journal, July 2004

  • Nouicer, Rachid; Collaboration), (for the PHOBOS; Back, B. B.
  • Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vol. 30, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/30/8/075

Pseudorapidity Distribution of Charged Particles in d + A u Collisions at s N N = 200     G e V
journal, August 2004


Scaling of charged particle production in d + Au collisions at s NN = 200 GeV
journal, September 2005


Silicon pad detectors for the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC
journal, April 2001

  • Nouicer, R.; Back, B. B.; Betts, R. R.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 461, Issue 1-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(00)01191-8

The PHOBOS detector at RHIC
journal, March 2003

  • Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 499, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(02)01959-9

The study of high density matter at RHIC
journal, February 2004


Rapidity Dependence of Charged Antihadron to Hadron Ratios in A u + A u Collisions at s N N = 200 G e V
journal, March 2003


The statistical model in Pb–Pb collisions at the LHC
journal, May 2013


Nuclear Stopping in A u + A u Collisions at s N N = 200 G e V
journal, August 2004


Scaling properties at freeze-out in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
journal, March 2011


Statistical hadronisation phenomenology
journal, May 2002


The pressure in 2, 2+1 and 3 flavour QCD
journal, April 2000


Collective Sideward Flow of Nuclear Matter in Violent High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions
journal, March 1980


Jets of nuclear matter from high energy heavy ion collisions
journal, April 1982


High energy heavy ion collisions—probing the equation of state of highly excited hardronic matter
journal, May 1986


Collective flow in Heavy-Ion Collisions
journal, December 1997


Directed and elliptic flow of charged pions and protons in Pb + Pb collisions at 4 0 A and 1 5 8 A GeV
journal, September 2003


Elliptic flow and initial eccentricity in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at RHIC
journal, July 2007

  • Nouicer, Rachid; Collaboration, the PHOBOS
  • Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vol. 34, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/34/8/S119

Energy Dependence of Elliptic Flow over a Large Pseudorapidity Range in Au + Au Collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
journal, April 2005


System Size, Energy, Pseudorapidity, and Centrality Dependence of Elliptic Flow
journal, June 2007


Methods for analyzing anisotropic flow in relativistic nuclear collisions
journal, September 1998


Collision-geometry fluctuations and triangular flow in heavy-ion collisions
journal, May 2010


Initial fluctuation effect on harmonic flows in high-energy heavy-ion collisions
journal, December 2011


Hadronic dissipative effects on elliptic flow in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions
journal, May 2006


System size dependence of elliptic flows in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
journal, March 2006


Excitation function of elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions and the nuclear matter equation of state
journal, April 2005


Predictions for the LHC heavy-ion program
journal, December 2007

  • Borghini, Nicolas; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
  • Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vol. 35, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/35/2/023001

Elliptic Flow of Charged Particles in Pb-Pb Collisions at s N N = 2.76 TeV
journal, December 2010


Anisotropic flow at the LHC measured with the ALICE detector
journal, November 2011


ϕ meson production in <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:mi mathvariant="normal">Au</mml:mi><mml:mo>+</mml:mo><mml:mi mathvariant="normal">Au</mml:mi></mml:math> and <mml:math altimg="si2.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:mi>p</mml:mi><mml:mo>+</mml:mo><mml:mi>p</mml:mi></mml:math> collisions at <mml:math altimg="si3.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msqrt><mml:msub><mml:mi>s</mml:mi><mml:mrow><mml:mi>N</mml:mi><mml:mi>N</mml:mi></mml:mrow></mml:msub></mml:msqrt><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mn>200</mml:mn><mml:mspace width="0.25em"/><mml:mtext>GeV</mml:mtext></mml:math>
journal, April 2005


Multistrange Baryon Elliptic Flow in Au + Au Collisions at s N N = 200 GeV
journal, September 2005


Centrality dependence of charged hadron and strange hadron elliptic flow from s NN = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions
journal, May 2008


Event-by-Event Anisotropic Flow in Heavy-ion Collisions from Combined Yang-Mills and Viscous Fluid Dynamics
journal, January 2013


Fluctuating Glasma Initial Conditions and Flow in Heavy Ion Collisions
journal, June 2012


Event-by-event gluon multiplicity, energy density, and eccentricities in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions
journal, September 2012


Eccentric Protons? Sensitivity of Flow to System Size and Shape in p + p , p + Pb , and Pb + Pb Collisions
journal, September 2014


Azimuthal anisotropy in Au+Au collisions at s NN = 200 GeV
journal, July 2005


Consistency of Perfect Fluidity and Jet Quenching in Semi-Quark-Gluon Monopole Plasmas
journal, August 2015


Elliptic Flow at Large Transverse Momenta from Quark Coalescence
journal, August 2003


Suppressed π 0 Production at Large Transverse Momentum in Central A u + A u Collisions at s N N = 200 G e V
journal, August 2003


Midrapidity Neutral-Pion Production in Proton-Proton Collisions at s = 200 G e V
journal, December 2003


Indications of suppressed high <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msub><mml:mi>p</mml:mi><mml:mi>T</mml:mi></mml:msub></mml:math> hadron production in nucleus–nucleus collisions at CERN-SPS
journal, August 2004


Production of hadrons at large transverse momentum at 200, 300, and 400 GeV
journal, June 1975


Energy dependence of <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msup><mml:mi>π</mml:mi><mml:mo>±</mml:mo></mml:msup></mml:math>, p and <mml:math altimg="si2.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:mover accent="true"><mml:mi>p</mml:mi><mml:mo>¯</mml:mo></mml:mover></mml:math> transverse momentum spectra for <mml:math altimg="si3.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:mi mathvariant="normal">Au</mml:mi><mml:mo>+</mml:mo><mml:mi mathvariant="normal">Au</mml:mi></mml:math> collisions at <mml:math altimg="si4.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msqrt><mml:msub><mml:mi>s</mml:mi><mml:mi mathvariant="normal">NN</mml:mi></mml:msub></mml:msqrt><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mn>62.4</mml:mn></mml:math> and 200 GeV
journal, November 2007


Centrality Dependence of π 0 and η Production at Large Transverse Momentum in s N N = 200 GeV d + Au Collisions
journal, April 2007


Common Suppression Pattern of η and π 0 Mesons at High Transverse Momentum in Au + Au Collisions at s N N = 200 GeV
journal, May 2006


Absence of Suppression in Particle Production at Large Transverse Momentum in s N N = 200 G e V d + A u Collisions
journal, August 2003


Recent Results from PHENIX Experiment at RHIC: Exploring the QCD Medium
journal, July 2011


Study of high-p T charged particle suppression in PbPb compared to pp collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76~\mathrm{TeV}$
journal, March 2012


Jet quenching in dense matter
journal, July 1990


The new physics at RHIC. From transparency to high pt suppression
journal, April 2004


Quark damping and energy loss in the high temperature QCD
journal, March 1991


Nuclear Modification of Electron Spectra and Implications for Heavy Quark Energy Loss in Au + Au Collisions at s N N = 200 GeV
journal, January 2006


Open Charm Yields in d + A u Collisions at s N N = 200     G e V
journal, February 2005


High-pT pion quenching versus anti+baryon enhancement in nucleus-nucleus collisions
journal, March 2003


High- p T Tomography of d + A u and A u + A u at SPS, RHIC, and LHC
journal, December 2002


Jet tomography
journal, July 2004


Observation of very large transverse momentum jets at the CERN p collider
journal, December 1982


Observation of jets in high transverse energy events at the CERN proton antiproton collider
journal, March 1983


Measurement of the Inclusive Jet Cross Section in p ¯ p Collisions at s = 1.8 TeV
journal, February 1989


Two-jet invariant0mass distribution at s = 1.8 TeV
journal, March 1990


Jet-fragmentation properties in p ¯ p collisions at √ s =1.8 TeV
journal, August 1990


The jet cross section in pp interactions at √s = 45 GeV and its √s dependence
journal, March 1983


Measurement of the dependence of jet production at the CERN p collider
journal, October 1985


Measurement of the inclusive jet cross section at the CERN p collider
journal, May 1986


Suppression of Hadrons with Large Transverse Momentum in Central A u + A u Collisions at s NN = 130 GeV
journal, December 2001


Centrality Dependence of High- p T Hadron Suppression in A u + A u Collisions at s N N = 130 G e V
journal, October 2002


Matter in extremis: ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC
journal, April 2005


Disappearance of Back-To-Back High- p T Hadron Correlations in Central A u + A u Collisions at s N N = 200 G e V
journal, February 2003


Evidence from d + A u Measurements for Final-State Suppression of High- p T Hadrons in A u + A u Collisions at RHIC
journal, August 2003


Jet quenching as a probe of dense matter
journal, May 1991


Gluon shadowing and jet quenching in A + A collisions at √ s =200 A GeV
journal, March 1992


Initial state parton broadening and energy loss probed in d+Au at RHIC
journal, June 2003


Resummed QCD Power Corrections to Nuclear Shadowing
journal, December 2004


Parton saturation and Npart scaling of semi-hard processes in QCD
journal, May 2003


Centrality Dependence of Charged-Hadron Transverse-Momentum Spectra in d + A u Collisions at s N N = 200 G e V
journal, August 2003


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Viscosity to entropy ratio of QGP in relativistic heavy ion collision: Hard thermal loop corrections
    journal, June 2016

    • Pari, Sharareh Mehrabi; Javidan, Kurosh; Shahri, Fatemeh Taghavi
    • International Journal of Modern Physics E, Vol. 25, Issue 06
    • DOI: 10.1142/s0218301316500403