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Title: Beam-energy dependence of charge balance functions from Au + Au collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

Abstract

Balance functions have been measured in terms of relative pseudorapidity ( Δη ) for charged particle pairs at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) from Au + Au collisions at $$\sqrt{s}$$$_{NN}$$ = 7.7 GeV to 200 GeV using the STAR detector. These results are compared with balance functions measured at the CERN Large Hadron Collider from Pb + Pb collisions at $$\sqrt{s}$$$_{NN}$$ = 2.76 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. The width of the balance function decreases as the collisions become more central and as the beam energy is increased. In contrast, the widths of the balance functions calculated using shuffled events show little dependence on centrality or beam energy and are larger than the observed widths. Balance function widths calculated using events generated by UrQMD are wider than the measured widths in central collisions and show little centrality dependence. The measured widths of the balance functions in central collisions are consistent with the delayed hadronization of a deconfined quark gluon plasma (QGP). Finally, the narrowing of the balance function in central collisions at $$\sqrt{s}$$$_{NN}$$ = 7.7 GeV implies that a QGP is still being created at this relatively low energy.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26); USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
STAR Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1340412
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1295991; OSTI ID: 1341603; OSTI ID: 1423602
Report Number(s):
BNL-113251-2016-JA; BNL-112604-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9985; PRVCAN; R&D Project: PO 004; KB0202012; TRN: US1701716
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC00112704; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review C
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 94; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9985
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

Citation Formats

Adamczyk, L., Adkins, J. K., Agakishiev, G., Aggarwal, M. M., Ahammed, Z., Alekseev, I., Alford, J., Aparin, A., Arkhipkin, D., Aschenauer, E. C., Averichev, G. S., Banerjee, A., Bellwied, R., Bhasin, A., Bhati, A. K., Bhattarai, P., Bielcik, J., Bielcikova, J., Bland, L. C., Bordyuzhin, I. G., Bouchet, J., Brandin, A. V., Bunzarov, I., Burton, T. P., Butterworth, J., Caines, H., Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M., Campbell, J. M., Cebra, D., Cervantes, M. C., Chakaberia, I., Chaloupka, P., Chang, Z., Chattopadhyay, S., Chen, J. H., Chen, H. F., Cheng, J., Cherney, M., Christie, W., Codrington, M. J. M., Contin, G., Crawford, H. J., Cui, X., Das, S., De Silva, L. C., Debbe, R. R., Dedovich, T. G., Deng, J., Derevschikov, A. A., Derradi de Souza, R., di Ruzza, B., Didenko, L., Dilks, C., Dong, X., Drachenberg, J. L., Draper, J. E., Du, C. M., Dunkelberger, L. E., Dunlop, J. C., Efimov, L. G., Engelage, J., Eppley, G., Esha, R., Evdokimov, O., Eyser, O., Fatemi, R., Fazio, S., Federic, P., Fedorisin, J., Feng,, Filip, P., Fisyak, Y., Flores, C. E., Gagliardi, C. A., Garand, D., Geurts, F., Gibson, A., Girard, M., Greiner, L., Grosnick, D., Gunarathne, D. S., Guo, Y., Gupta, A., Gupta, S., Guryn, W., Hamad, A., Hamed, A., Han, L. -X., Haque, R., Harris, J. W., Heppelmann, S., Hirsch, A., Hoffmann, G. W., Hofman, D. J., Horvat, S., Huang, B., Huang, X., Huang, H. Z., Huck, P., Humanic, T. J., Igo, G., Jacobs, W. W., Jang, H., Judd, E. G., Kabana, S., Kalinkin, D., Kang, K., Kauder, K., Ke, H. W., Keane, D., Kechechyan, A., Khan, Z. H., Kikola, D. P., Kisel, I., Kisiel, A., Klein, S. R., Koetke, D. D., Kollegger, T., Kosarzewski, L. K., Kotchenda, L., Kraishan, A. F., Kravtsov, P., Krueger, K., Kulakov, I., Kumar, L., Kycia, R. A., Lamont, M. A. C., Landgraf, J. M., Landry, K. D., Lauret, J., Lebedev, A., Lednicky, R., Lee, J. H., Li, Z. M., Li, X., Li, W., Li, Y., Li, X., Li, C., Lisa, M. A., Liu, F., Ljubicic, T., Llope, W. J., Lomnitz, M., Longacre, R. S., Luo, X., Ma, G. L., Ma, R. M., Ma, Y. G., Magdy, N., Mahapatra, D. P., Majka, R., Manion, A., Margetis, S., Markert, C., Masui, H., Matis, H. S., McDonald, D., Minaev, N. G., Mioduszewski, S., Mohanty, B., Mondal, M. M., Morozov, D. A., Mustafa, M. K., Nandi, B. K., Nasim, Md., Nayak, T. K., Nigmatkulov, G., Nogach, L. V., Noh, S. Y., Novak, J., Nurushev, S. B., Odyniec, G., Ogawa, A., Oh, K., Okorokov, V., Olvitt, D. L., Page, B. S., Pan, Y. X., Pandit, Y., Panebratsev, Y., Pawlak, T., Pawlik, B., Pei, H., Perkins, C., Pile, P., Planinic, M., Pluta, J., Poljak, N., Poniatowska, K., Porter, J., Poskanzer, A. M., Pruthi, N. K., Przybycien, M., Putschke, J., Qiu, H., Quintero, A., Ramachandran, S., Raniwala, R., Raniwala, S., Ray, R. L., Ritter, H. G., Roberts, J. B., Rogachevskiy, O. V., Romero, J. L., Roy, A., Ruan, L., Rusnak, J., Rusnakova, O., Sahoo, N. R., Sahu, P. K., Sakrejda, I., Salur, S., Sandacz, A., Sandweiss, J., Sarkar, A., Schambach, J., Scharenberg, R. P., Schmah, A. M., Schmidke, W. B., Schmitz, N., Seger, J., Seyboth, P., Shah, N., Shahaliev, E., Shanmuganathan, P. V., Shao, M., Sharma, B., Shen, W. Q., Shi, S. S., Shou, Q. Y., Sichtermann, E. P., Simko, M., Skoby, M. J., Smirnov, N., Smirnov, D., Solanki, D., Song, L., Sorensen, P., Spinka, H. M., Srivastava, B., Stanislaus, T. D. S., Stock, R., Strikhanov, M., Stringfellow, B., Sumbera, M., Summa, B. J., Sun, X. M., Sun, Z., Sun, Y., Sun, X., Surrow, B., Svirida, D. N., Szelezniak, M. A., Takahashi, J., Tang, Z., Tang, A. H., Tarnowsky, T., Tawfik, A. N., Thomas, J. H., Timmins, A. R., Tlusty, D., Tokarev, M., Trentalange, S., Tribble, R. E., Tribedy, P., Tripathy, S. K., Trzeciak, B. A., Tsai, O. D., Turnau, J., Ullrich, T., Underwood, D. G., Upsal, I., Van Buren, G., van Nieuwenhuizen, G., Vandenbroucke, M., Varma, R., Vasconcelos, G. M. S., Vasiliev, A. N., Vertesi, R., Videbæk, F., Viyogi, Y. P., Vokal, S., Voloshin, S. A., Vossen, A., Wang, J. S., Wang, X. L., Wang, Y., Wang, H., Wang, F., Wang, G., Webb, G., Webb, J. C., Wen, L., Westfall, G. D., Wieman, H., Wissink, S. W., Witt, R., Wu, Y. F., Xiao, Z., Xie, W., Xin, K., Xu, N., Xu, Z., Xu, H., Xu, Y., Xu, Q. H., Yan, W., Yang, Y., Yang, C., Yang, Y., Ye, Z., Yepes, P., Yi, L., Yip, K., Yoo, I. -K., Yu, N., Zbroszczyk, H., Zha, W., Zhang, X. P., Zhang, Z. P., Zhang, J. B., Zhang, J. L., Zhang, Y., Zhang, S., Zhao, F., Zhao, J., Zhong, C., Zhu, Y. H., Zhu, X., Zoulkarneeva, Y., and Zyzak, M. Beam-energy dependence of charge balance functions from Au + Au collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.94.024909.
Adamczyk, L., Adkins, J. K., Agakishiev, G., Aggarwal, M. M., Ahammed, Z., Alekseev, I., Alford, J., Aparin, A., Arkhipkin, D., Aschenauer, E. C., Averichev, G. S., Banerjee, A., Bellwied, R., Bhasin, A., Bhati, A. K., Bhattarai, P., Bielcik, J., Bielcikova, J., Bland, L. C., Bordyuzhin, I. G., Bouchet, J., Brandin, A. V., Bunzarov, I., Burton, T. P., Butterworth, J., Caines, H., Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M., Campbell, J. M., Cebra, D., Cervantes, M. C., Chakaberia, I., Chaloupka, P., Chang, Z., Chattopadhyay, S., Chen, J. H., Chen, H. F., Cheng, J., Cherney, M., Christie, W., Codrington, M. J. M., Contin, G., Crawford, H. J., Cui, X., Das, S., De Silva, L. C., Debbe, R. R., Dedovich, T. G., Deng, J., Derevschikov, A. A., Derradi de Souza, R., di Ruzza, B., Didenko, L., Dilks, C., Dong, X., Drachenberg, J. L., Draper, J. E., Du, C. M., Dunkelberger, L. E., Dunlop, J. C., Efimov, L. G., Engelage, J., Eppley, G., Esha, R., Evdokimov, O., Eyser, O., Fatemi, R., Fazio, S., Federic, P., Fedorisin, J., Feng,, Filip, P., Fisyak, Y., Flores, C. E., Gagliardi, C. A., Garand, D., Geurts, F., Gibson, A., Girard, M., Greiner, L., Grosnick, D., Gunarathne, D. S., Guo, Y., Gupta, A., Gupta, S., Guryn, W., Hamad, A., Hamed, A., Han, L. -X., Haque, R., Harris, J. W., Heppelmann, S., Hirsch, A., Hoffmann, G. W., Hofman, D. J., Horvat, S., Huang, B., Huang, X., Huang, H. Z., Huck, P., Humanic, T. J., Igo, G., Jacobs, W. W., Jang, H., Judd, E. G., Kabana, S., Kalinkin, D., Kang, K., Kauder, K., Ke, H. W., Keane, D., Kechechyan, A., Khan, Z. H., Kikola, D. P., Kisel, I., Kisiel, A., Klein, S. R., Koetke, D. D., Kollegger, T., Kosarzewski, L. K., Kotchenda, L., Kraishan, A. F., Kravtsov, P., Krueger, K., Kulakov, I., Kumar, L., Kycia, R. A., Lamont, M. A. C., Landgraf, J. M., Landry, K. D., Lauret, J., Lebedev, A., Lednicky, R., Lee, J. H., Li, Z. M., Li, X., Li, W., Li, Y., Li, X., Li, C., Lisa, M. A., Liu, F., Ljubicic, T., Llope, W. J., Lomnitz, M., Longacre, R. S., Luo, X., Ma, G. L., Ma, R. M., Ma, Y. G., Magdy, N., Mahapatra, D. P., Majka, R., Manion, A., Margetis, S., Markert, C., Masui, H., Matis, H. S., McDonald, D., Minaev, N. G., Mioduszewski, S., Mohanty, B., Mondal, M. M., Morozov, D. A., Mustafa, M. K., Nandi, B. K., Nasim, Md., Nayak, T. K., Nigmatkulov, G., Nogach, L. V., Noh, S. Y., Novak, J., Nurushev, S. B., Odyniec, G., Ogawa, A., Oh, K., Okorokov, V., Olvitt, D. L., Page, B. S., Pan, Y. X., Pandit, Y., Panebratsev, Y., Pawlak, T., Pawlik, B., Pei, H., Perkins, C., Pile, P., Planinic, M., Pluta, J., Poljak, N., Poniatowska, K., Porter, J., Poskanzer, A. M., Pruthi, N. K., Przybycien, M., Putschke, J., Qiu, H., Quintero, A., Ramachandran, S., Raniwala, R., Raniwala, S., Ray, R. L., Ritter, H. G., Roberts, J. B., Rogachevskiy, O. V., Romero, J. L., Roy, A., Ruan, L., Rusnak, J., Rusnakova, O., Sahoo, N. R., Sahu, P. K., Sakrejda, I., Salur, S., Sandacz, A., Sandweiss, J., Sarkar, A., Schambach, J., Scharenberg, R. P., Schmah, A. M., Schmidke, W. B., Schmitz, N., Seger, J., Seyboth, P., Shah, N., Shahaliev, E., Shanmuganathan, P. V., Shao, M., Sharma, B., Shen, W. Q., Shi, S. S., Shou, Q. Y., Sichtermann, E. P., Simko, M., Skoby, M. J., Smirnov, N., Smirnov, D., Solanki, D., Song, L., Sorensen, P., Spinka, H. M., Srivastava, B., Stanislaus, T. D. S., Stock, R., Strikhanov, M., Stringfellow, B., Sumbera, M., Summa, B. J., Sun, X. M., Sun, Z., Sun, Y., Sun, X., Surrow, B., Svirida, D. N., Szelezniak, M. A., Takahashi, J., Tang, Z., Tang, A. H., Tarnowsky, T., Tawfik, A. N., Thomas, J. H., Timmins, A. R., Tlusty, D., Tokarev, M., Trentalange, S., Tribble, R. E., Tribedy, P., Tripathy, S. K., Trzeciak, B. A., Tsai, O. D., Turnau, J., Ullrich, T., Underwood, D. G., Upsal, I., Van Buren, G., van Nieuwenhuizen, G., Vandenbroucke, M., Varma, R., Vasconcelos, G. M. S., Vasiliev, A. N., Vertesi, R., Videbæk, F., Viyogi, Y. P., Vokal, S., Voloshin, S. A., Vossen, A., Wang, J. S., Wang, X. L., Wang, Y., Wang, H., Wang, F., Wang, G., Webb, G., Webb, J. C., Wen, L., Westfall, G. D., Wieman, H., Wissink, S. W., Witt, R., Wu, Y. F., Xiao, Z., Xie, W., Xin, K., Xu, N., Xu, Z., Xu, H., Xu, Y., Xu, Q. H., Yan, W., Yang, Y., Yang, C., Yang, Y., Ye, Z., Yepes, P., Yi, L., Yip, K., Yoo, I. -K., Yu, N., Zbroszczyk, H., Zha, W., Zhang, X. P., Zhang, Z. P., Zhang, J. B., Zhang, J. L., Zhang, Y., Zhang, S., Zhao, F., Zhao, J., Zhong, C., Zhu, Y. H., Zhu, X., Zoulkarneeva, Y., & Zyzak, M. Beam-energy dependence of charge balance functions from Au + Au collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.94.024909.
Adamczyk, L., Adkins, J. K., Agakishiev, G., Aggarwal, M. M., Ahammed, Z., Alekseev, I., Alford, J., Aparin, A., Arkhipkin, D., Aschenauer, E. C., Averichev, G. S., Banerjee, A., Bellwied, R., Bhasin, A., Bhati, A. K., Bhattarai, P., Bielcik, J., Bielcikova, J., Bland, L. C., Bordyuzhin, I. G., Bouchet, J., Brandin, A. V., Bunzarov, I., Burton, T. P., Butterworth, J., Caines, H., Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M., Campbell, J. M., Cebra, D., Cervantes, M. C., Chakaberia, I., Chaloupka, P., Chang, Z., Chattopadhyay, S., Chen, J. H., Chen, H. F., Cheng, J., Cherney, M., Christie, W., Codrington, M. J. M., Contin, G., Crawford, H. J., Cui, X., Das, S., De Silva, L. C., Debbe, R. R., Dedovich, T. G., Deng, J., Derevschikov, A. A., Derradi de Souza, R., di Ruzza, B., Didenko, L., Dilks, C., Dong, X., Drachenberg, J. L., Draper, J. E., Du, C. M., Dunkelberger, L. E., Dunlop, J. C., Efimov, L. G., Engelage, J., Eppley, G., Esha, R., Evdokimov, O., Eyser, O., Fatemi, R., Fazio, S., Federic, P., Fedorisin, J., Feng,, Filip, P., Fisyak, Y., Flores, C. E., Gagliardi, C. A., Garand, D., Geurts, F., Gibson, A., Girard, M., Greiner, L., Grosnick, D., Gunarathne, D. S., Guo, Y., Gupta, A., Gupta, S., Guryn, W., Hamad, A., Hamed, A., Han, L. -X., Haque, R., Harris, J. W., Heppelmann, S., Hirsch, A., Hoffmann, G. W., Hofman, D. J., Horvat, S., Huang, B., Huang, X., Huang, H. Z., Huck, P., Humanic, T. J., Igo, G., Jacobs, W. W., Jang, H., Judd, E. G., Kabana, S., Kalinkin, D., Kang, K., Kauder, K., Ke, H. W., Keane, D., Kechechyan, A., Khan, Z. H., Kikola, D. P., Kisel, I., Kisiel, A., Klein, S. R., Koetke, D. D., Kollegger, T., Kosarzewski, L. K., Kotchenda, L., Kraishan, A. F., Kravtsov, P., Krueger, K., Kulakov, I., Kumar, L., Kycia, R. A., Lamont, M. A. C., Landgraf, J. M., Landry, K. D., Lauret, J., Lebedev, A., Lednicky, R., Lee, J. H., Li, Z. M., Li, X., Li, W., Li, Y., Li, X., Li, C., Lisa, M. A., Liu, F., Ljubicic, T., Llope, W. J., Lomnitz, M., Longacre, R. S., Luo, X., Ma, G. L., Ma, R. M., Ma, Y. G., Magdy, N., Mahapatra, D. P., Majka, R., Manion, A., Margetis, S., Markert, C., Masui, H., Matis, H. S., McDonald, D., Minaev, N. G., Mioduszewski, S., Mohanty, B., Mondal, M. M., Morozov, D. A., Mustafa, M. K., Nandi, B. K., Nasim, Md., Nayak, T. K., Nigmatkulov, G., Nogach, L. V., Noh, S. Y., Novak, J., Nurushev, S. B., Odyniec, G., Ogawa, A., Oh, K., Okorokov, V., Olvitt, D. L., Page, B. S., Pan, Y. X., Pandit, Y., Panebratsev, Y., Pawlak, T., Pawlik, B., Pei, H., Perkins, C., Pile, P., Planinic, M., Pluta, J., Poljak, N., Poniatowska, K., Porter, J., Poskanzer, A. M., Pruthi, N. K., Przybycien, M., Putschke, J., Qiu, H., Quintero, A., Ramachandran, S., Raniwala, R., Raniwala, S., Ray, R. L., Ritter, H. G., Roberts, J. B., Rogachevskiy, O. V., Romero, J. L., Roy, A., Ruan, L., Rusnak, J., Rusnakova, O., Sahoo, N. R., Sahu, P. K., Sakrejda, I., Salur, S., Sandacz, A., Sandweiss, J., Sarkar, A., Schambach, J., Scharenberg, R. P., Schmah, A. M., Schmidke, W. B., Schmitz, N., Seger, J., Seyboth, P., Shah, N., Shahaliev, E., Shanmuganathan, P. V., Shao, M., Sharma, B., Shen, W. Q., Shi, S. S., Shou, Q. Y., Sichtermann, E. P., Simko, M., Skoby, M. J., Smirnov, N., Smirnov, D., Solanki, D., Song, L., Sorensen, P., Spinka, H. M., Srivastava, B., Stanislaus, T. D. S., Stock, R., Strikhanov, M., Stringfellow, B., Sumbera, M., Summa, B. J., Sun, X. M., Sun, Z., Sun, Y., Sun, X., Surrow, B., Svirida, D. N., Szelezniak, M. A., Takahashi, J., Tang, Z., Tang, A. H., Tarnowsky, T., Tawfik, A. N., Thomas, J. H., Timmins, A. R., Tlusty, D., Tokarev, M., Trentalange, S., Tribble, R. E., Tribedy, P., Tripathy, S. K., Trzeciak, B. A., Tsai, O. D., Turnau, J., Ullrich, T., Underwood, D. G., Upsal, I., Van Buren, G., van Nieuwenhuizen, G., Vandenbroucke, M., Varma, R., Vasconcelos, G. M. S., Vasiliev, A. N., Vertesi, R., Videbæk, F., Viyogi, Y. P., Vokal, S., Voloshin, S. A., Vossen, A., Wang, J. S., Wang, X. L., Wang, Y., Wang, H., Wang, F., Wang, G., Webb, G., Webb, J. C., Wen, L., Westfall, G. D., Wieman, H., Wissink, S. W., Witt, R., Wu, Y. F., Xiao, Z., Xie, W., Xin, K., Xu, N., Xu, Z., Xu, H., Xu, Y., Xu, Q. H., Yan, W., Yang, Y., Yang, C., Yang, Y., Ye, Z., Yepes, P., Yi, L., Yip, K., Yoo, I. -K., Yu, N., Zbroszczyk, H., Zha, W., Zhang, X. P., Zhang, Z. P., Zhang, J. B., Zhang, J. L., Zhang, Y., Zhang, S., Zhao, F., Zhao, J., Zhong, C., Zhu, Y. H., Zhu, X., Zoulkarneeva, Y., and Zyzak, M. Tue . "Beam-energy dependence of charge balance functions from Au + Au collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.94.024909. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1340412.
@article{osti_1340412,
title = {Beam-energy dependence of charge balance functions from Au + Au collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider},
author = {Adamczyk, L. and Adkins, J. K. and Agakishiev, G. and Aggarwal, M. M. and Ahammed, Z. and Alekseev, I. and Alford, J. and Aparin, A. and Arkhipkin, D. and Aschenauer, E. C. and Averichev, G. S. and Banerjee, A. and Bellwied, R. and Bhasin, A. and Bhati, A. K. and Bhattarai, P. and Bielcik, J. and Bielcikova, J. and Bland, L. C. and Bordyuzhin, I. G. and Bouchet, J. and Brandin, A. V. and Bunzarov, I. and Burton, T. P. and Butterworth, J. and Caines, H. and Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M. and Campbell, J. M. and Cebra, D. and Cervantes, M. C. and Chakaberia, I. and Chaloupka, P. and Chang, Z. and Chattopadhyay, S. and Chen, J. H. and Chen, H. F. and Cheng, J. and Cherney, M. and Christie, W. and Codrington, M. J. M. and Contin, G. and Crawford, H. J. and Cui, X. and Das, S. and De Silva, L. C. and Debbe, R. R. and Dedovich, T. G. and Deng, J. and Derevschikov, A. A. and Derradi de Souza, R. and di Ruzza, B. and Didenko, L. and Dilks, C. and Dong, X. and Drachenberg, J. L. and Draper, J. E. and Du, C. M. and Dunkelberger, L. E. and Dunlop, J. C. and Efimov, L. G. and Engelage, J. and Eppley, G. and Esha, R. and Evdokimov, O. and Eyser, O. and Fatemi, R. and Fazio, S. and Federic, P. and Fedorisin, J. and Feng, and Filip, P. and Fisyak, Y. and Flores, C. E. and Gagliardi, C. A. and Garand, D. and Geurts, F. and Gibson, A. and Girard, M. and Greiner, L. and Grosnick, D. and Gunarathne, D. S. and Guo, Y. and Gupta, A. and Gupta, S. and Guryn, W. and Hamad, A. and Hamed, A. and Han, L. -X. and Haque, R. and Harris, J. W. and Heppelmann, S. and Hirsch, A. and Hoffmann, G. W. and Hofman, D. J. and Horvat, S. and Huang, B. and Huang, X. and Huang, H. Z. and Huck, P. and Humanic, T. J. and Igo, G. and Jacobs, W. W. and Jang, H. and Judd, E. G. and Kabana, S. and Kalinkin, D. and Kang, K. and Kauder, K. and Ke, H. W. and Keane, D. and Kechechyan, A. and Khan, Z. H. and Kikola, D. P. and Kisel, I. and Kisiel, A. and Klein, S. R. and Koetke, D. D. and Kollegger, T. and Kosarzewski, L. K. and Kotchenda, L. and Kraishan, A. F. and Kravtsov, P. and Krueger, K. and Kulakov, I. and Kumar, L. and Kycia, R. A. and Lamont, M. A. C. and Landgraf, J. M. and Landry, K. D. and Lauret, J. and Lebedev, A. and Lednicky, R. and Lee, J. H. and Li, Z. M. and Li, X. and Li, W. and Li, Y. and Li, X. and Li, C. and Lisa, M. A. and Liu, F. and Ljubicic, T. and Llope, W. J. and Lomnitz, M. and Longacre, R. S. and Luo, X. and Ma, G. L. and Ma, R. M. and Ma, Y. G. and Magdy, N. and Mahapatra, D. P. and Majka, R. and Manion, A. and Margetis, S. and Markert, C. and Masui, H. and Matis, H. S. and McDonald, D. and Minaev, N. G. and Mioduszewski, S. and Mohanty, B. and Mondal, M. M. and Morozov, D. A. and Mustafa, M. K. and Nandi, B. K. and Nasim, Md. and Nayak, T. K. and Nigmatkulov, G. and Nogach, L. V. and Noh, S. Y. and Novak, J. and Nurushev, S. B. and Odyniec, G. and Ogawa, A. and Oh, K. and Okorokov, V. and Olvitt, D. L. and Page, B. S. and Pan, Y. X. and Pandit, Y. and Panebratsev, Y. and Pawlak, T. and Pawlik, B. and Pei, H. and Perkins, C. and Pile, P. and Planinic, M. and Pluta, J. and Poljak, N. and Poniatowska, K. and Porter, J. and Poskanzer, A. M. and Pruthi, N. K. and Przybycien, M. and Putschke, J. and Qiu, H. and Quintero, A. and Ramachandran, S. and Raniwala, R. and Raniwala, S. and Ray, R. L. and Ritter, H. G. and Roberts, J. B. and Rogachevskiy, O. V. and Romero, J. L. and Roy, A. and Ruan, L. and Rusnak, J. and Rusnakova, O. and Sahoo, N. R. and Sahu, P. K. and Sakrejda, I. and Salur, S. and Sandacz, A. and Sandweiss, J. and Sarkar, A. and Schambach, J. and Scharenberg, R. P. and Schmah, A. M. and Schmidke, W. B. and Schmitz, N. and Seger, J. and Seyboth, P. and Shah, N. and Shahaliev, E. and Shanmuganathan, P. V. and Shao, M. and Sharma, B. and Shen, W. Q. and Shi, S. S. and Shou, Q. Y. and Sichtermann, E. P. and Simko, M. and Skoby, M. J. and Smirnov, N. and Smirnov, D. and Solanki, D. and Song, L. and Sorensen, P. and Spinka, H. M. and Srivastava, B. and Stanislaus, T. D. S. and Stock, R. and Strikhanov, M. and Stringfellow, B. and Sumbera, M. and Summa, B. J. and Sun, X. M. and Sun, Z. and Sun, Y. and Sun, X. and Surrow, B. and Svirida, D. N. and Szelezniak, M. A. and Takahashi, J. and Tang, Z. and Tang, A. H. and Tarnowsky, T. and Tawfik, A. N. and Thomas, J. H. and Timmins, A. R. and Tlusty, D. and Tokarev, M. and Trentalange, S. and Tribble, R. E. and Tribedy, P. and Tripathy, S. K. and Trzeciak, B. A. and Tsai, O. D. and Turnau, J. and Ullrich, T. and Underwood, D. G. and Upsal, I. and Van Buren, G. and van Nieuwenhuizen, G. and Vandenbroucke, M. and Varma, R. and Vasconcelos, G. M. S. and Vasiliev, A. N. and Vertesi, R. and Videbæk, F. and Viyogi, Y. P. and Vokal, S. and Voloshin, S. A. and Vossen, A. and Wang, J. S. and Wang, X. L. and Wang, Y. and Wang, H. and Wang, F. and Wang, G. and Webb, G. and Webb, J. C. and Wen, L. and Westfall, G. D. and Wieman, H. and Wissink, S. W. and Witt, R. and Wu, Y. F. and Xiao, Z. and Xie, W. and Xin, K. and Xu, N. and Xu, Z. and Xu, H. and Xu, Y. and Xu, Q. H. and Yan, W. and Yang, Y. and Yang, C. and Yang, Y. and Ye, Z. and Yepes, P. and Yi, L. and Yip, K. and Yoo, I. -K. and Yu, N. and Zbroszczyk, H. and Zha, W. and Zhang, X. P. and Zhang, Z. P. and Zhang, J. B. and Zhang, J. L. and Zhang, Y. and Zhang, S. and Zhao, F. and Zhao, J. and Zhong, C. and Zhu, Y. H. and Zhu, X. and Zoulkarneeva, Y. and Zyzak, M.},
abstractNote = {Balance functions have been measured in terms of relative pseudorapidity ( Δη ) for charged particle pairs at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) from Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s}$$_{NN}$ = 7.7 GeV to 200 GeV using the STAR detector. These results are compared with balance functions measured at the CERN Large Hadron Collider from Pb + Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s}$$_{NN}$ = 2.76 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. The width of the balance function decreases as the collisions become more central and as the beam energy is increased. In contrast, the widths of the balance functions calculated using shuffled events show little dependence on centrality or beam energy and are larger than the observed widths. Balance function widths calculated using events generated by UrQMD are wider than the measured widths in central collisions and show little centrality dependence. The measured widths of the balance functions in central collisions are consistent with the delayed hadronization of a deconfined quark gluon plasma (QGP). Finally, the narrowing of the balance function in central collisions at $\sqrt{s}$$_{NN}$ = 7.7 GeV implies that a QGP is still being created at this relatively low energy.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.94.024909},
journal = {Physical Review C},
number = 2,
volume = 94,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {8}
}

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