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Title: Measurement of interaction between antiprotons

Abstract

In this paper, one of the primary goals of nuclear physics is to understand the force between nucleons, which is a necessary step for understanding the structure of nuclei and how nuclei interact with each other. Rutherford discovered the atomic nucleus in 1911, and the large body of knowledge about the nuclear force that has since been acquired was derived from studies made on nucleons or nuclei. Although antinuclei up to antihelium-4 have been discovered and their masses measured, little is known directly about the nuclear force between antinucleons. Here, we study antiproton pair correlations among data collected by the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), where gold ions are collided with a centre-of-mass energy of 200 gigaelectronvolts per nucleon pair. Antiprotons are abundantly produced in such collisions, thus making it feasible to study details of the antiproton–antiproton interaction. By applying a technique similar to Hanbury Brown and Twiss intensity interferometry, we show that the force between two antiprotons is attractive. In addition, we report two key parameters that characterize the corresponding strong interaction: the scattering length and the effective range of the interaction. Our measured parameters are consistent within errors with the corresponding values for proton–protonmore » interactions. Our results provide direct information on the interaction between two antiprotons, one of the simplest systems of antinucleons, and so are fundamental to understanding the structure of more-complex antinuclei and their properties.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
OSTI Identifier:
1340342
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1409423
Report Number(s):
BNL-111942-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836; R&D Project: PO 004; KB0202012
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC00112704; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature (London)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Nature (London); Journal Volume: 527; Journal Issue: 7578; Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; relativistic heavy ion collider; experimental nuclear physics; particle astrophysics; theoretical physics; experimental particle physics; atomic and molecular collision processes

Citation Formats

Adamczyk, L., Adkins, J. K., Agakishiev, G., Aggarwal, M. M., Ahammed, Z., Alekseev, I., Alford, J., Aparin, A., Arkhipkin, D., Aschenauer, E. C., Averichev, G. S., Bairathi, V., Banerjee, A., Bellwied, R., Bhasin, A., Bhati, A. K., Bhattarai, P., Bielcik, J., Bielcikova, J., Bland, L. C., Bordyuzhin, I. G., Bouchet, J., Brandenburg, J. D., Brandin, A. V., Bunzarov, I., Butterworth, J., Caines, H., Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M., Campbell, J. M., Cebra, D., Cervantes, M. C., Chakaberia, I., Chaloupka, P., Chang, Z., Chattopadhyay, S., Chen, J. H., Chen, X., Cheng, J., Cherney, M., Christie, W., Contin, G., Crawford, H. J., Das, S., De Silva, L. C., Debbe, R. R., Dedovich, T. G., Deng, J., Derevschikov, A. A., di Ruzza, B., Didenko, L., Dilks, C., Dong, X., Drachenberg, J. L., Draper, J. E., Du, C. M., Dunkelberger, L. E., Dunlop, J. C., Efimov, L. G., Engelage, J., Eppley, G., Esha, R., Evdokimov, O., Eyser, O., Fatemi, R., Fazio, S., Federic, P., Fedorisin, J., Feng, Z., Filip, P., Fisyak, Y., Flores, C. E., Fulek, L., Gagliardi, C. A., Garand, D., Geurts, F., Gibson, A., Girard, M., Greiner, L., Grosnick, D., Gunarathne, D. S., Guo, Y., Gupta, A., Gupta, S., Guryn, W., Hamad, A., Hamed, A., Haque, R., Harris, J. W., He, L., Heppelmann, S., Heppelmann, S., Hirsch, A., Hoffmann, G. W., Hofman, D. J., Horvat, S., Huang, B., Huang, H. Z., Huang, X., Huck, P., Humanic, T. J., Igo, G., Jacobs, W. W., Jang, H., Jiang, K., Judd, E. G., Kabana, S., Kalinkin, D., Kang, K., Kauder, K., Ke, H. W., Keane, D., Kechechyan, A., Khan, Z. H., Kikoła, D. P., Kisel, I., Kisiel, A., Klein, S., Kochenda, L., Koetke, D. D., Kollegger, T., Kosarzewski, L. K., Kraishan, A. F., Kravtsov, P., Krueger, K., Kulakov, I., Kumar, L., Kycia, R. A., Lamont, M. A. C., Landgraf, J. M., Landry, K. D., Lauret, J., Lebedev, A., Lednicky, R., Lee, J. H., Li, X., Li, Z. M., Li, Y., Li, W., Li, X., Li, C., Lisa, M. A., Liu, F., Ljubicic, T., Llope, W. J., Lomnitz, M., Longacre, R. S., Luo, X., Ma, G. L., Ma, R., Ma, Y. G., Ma, L., Magdy, N., Majka, R., Manion, A., Margetis, S., Markert, C., Masui, H., Matis, H. S., McDonald, D., Meehan, K., Minaev, N. G., Mioduszewski, S., Mishra, D., Mohanty, B., Mondal, M. M., Morozov, D. A., Mustafa, M. K., Nandi, B. K., Nasim, Md., Nayak, T. K., Nigmatkulov, G., Nogach, L. V., Noh, S. Y., Novak, J., Nurushev, S. B., Odyniec, G., Ogawa, A., Oh, K., Okorokov, V., Olvitt, D., Page, B. S., Pak, R., Pan, Y. X., Pandit, Y., Panebratsev, Y., Pawlik, B., Pei, H., Perkins, C., Peterson, A., Pile, P., Planinic, M., Pluta, J., Poljak, N., Poniatowska, K., Porter, J., Posik, M., Poskanzer, A. M., Putschke, J., Qiu, H., Quintero, A., Ramachandran, S., Raniwala, R., Raniwala, S., Ray, R. L., Ritter, H. G., Roberts, J. B., Rogachevskiy, O. V., Romero, J. L., Roy, A., Ruan, L., Rusnak, J., Rusnakova, O., Sahoo, N. R., Sahu, P. K., Sakrejda, I., Salur, S., Sandweiss, J., Sarkar, A., Schambach, J., Scharenberg, R. P., Schmah, A. M., Schmidke, W. B., Schmitz, N., Seger, J., Seyboth, P., Shah, N., Shahaliev, E., Shanmuganathan, P. V., Shao, M., Sharma, M. K., Sharma, B., Shen, W. Q., Shi, S. S., Shou, Q. Y., Sichtermann, E. P., Sikora, R., Simko, M., Skoby, M. J., Smirnov, N., Smirnov, D., Song, L., Sorensen, P., Spinka, H. M., Srivastava, B., Stanislaus, T. D. S., Stepanov, M., Stock, R., Strikhanov, M., Stringfellow, B., Sumbera, M., Summa, B., Sun, Z., Sun, X. M., Sun, Y., Sun, X., Surrow, B., Svirida, N., Szelezniak, M. A., Tang, Z., Tang, A. H., Tarnowsky, T., Tawfik, A., Thomas, J. H., Timmins, A. R., Tlusty, D., Tokarev, M., Trentalange, S., Tribble, R. E., Tribedy, P., Tripathy, S. K., Trzeciak, B. A., Tsai, O. D., Ullrich, T., Underwood, D. G., Upsal, I., Van Buren, G., van Nieuwenhuizen, G., Vandenbroucke, M., Varma, R., Vasiliev, A. N., Vertesi, R., Videbæk, F., Viyogi, Y. P., Vokal, S., Voloshin, S. A., Vossen, A., Wang, G., Wang, H., Wang, J. S., Wang, Y., Wang, Y., Wang, F., Webb, J. C., Webb, G., Wen, L., Westfall, G. D., Wieman, H., Wissink, S. W., Witt, R., Wu, Y. F., Xiao, Z. G., Xie, W., Xin, K., Xu, Y. F., Xu, Q. H., Xu, H., Xu, N., Xu, Z., Yang, Y., Yang, C., Yang, S., Yang, Y., Yang, Q., Ye, Z., Yepes, P., Yi, L., Yip, K., Yoo, I. -K., Yu, N., Zbroszczyk, H., Zha, W., Zhang, J. B., Zhang, Z., Zhang, J., Zhang, S., Zhang, X. P., Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., Zhao, J., Zhong, C., Zhou, L., Zhu, X., Zoulkarneeva, Y., and Zyzak, M. Measurement of interaction between antiprotons. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1038/nature15724.
Adamczyk, L., Adkins, J. K., Agakishiev, G., Aggarwal, M. M., Ahammed, Z., Alekseev, I., Alford, J., Aparin, A., Arkhipkin, D., Aschenauer, E. C., Averichev, G. S., Bairathi, V., Banerjee, A., Bellwied, R., Bhasin, A., Bhati, A. K., Bhattarai, P., Bielcik, J., Bielcikova, J., Bland, L. C., Bordyuzhin, I. G., Bouchet, J., Brandenburg, J. D., Brandin, A. V., Bunzarov, I., Butterworth, J., Caines, H., Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M., Campbell, J. M., Cebra, D., Cervantes, M. C., Chakaberia, I., Chaloupka, P., Chang, Z., Chattopadhyay, S., Chen, J. H., Chen, X., Cheng, J., Cherney, M., Christie, W., Contin, G., Crawford, H. J., Das, S., De Silva, L. C., Debbe, R. R., Dedovich, T. G., Deng, J., Derevschikov, A. A., di Ruzza, B., Didenko, L., Dilks, C., Dong, X., Drachenberg, J. L., Draper, J. E., Du, C. M., Dunkelberger, L. E., Dunlop, J. C., Efimov, L. G., Engelage, J., Eppley, G., Esha, R., Evdokimov, O., Eyser, O., Fatemi, R., Fazio, S., Federic, P., Fedorisin, J., Feng, Z., Filip, P., Fisyak, Y., Flores, C. E., Fulek, L., Gagliardi, C. A., Garand, D., Geurts, F., Gibson, A., Girard, M., Greiner, L., Grosnick, D., Gunarathne, D. S., Guo, Y., Gupta, A., Gupta, S., Guryn, W., Hamad, A., Hamed, A., Haque, R., Harris, J. W., He, L., Heppelmann, S., Heppelmann, S., Hirsch, A., Hoffmann, G. W., Hofman, D. J., Horvat, S., Huang, B., Huang, H. Z., Huang, X., Huck, P., Humanic, T. J., Igo, G., Jacobs, W. W., Jang, H., Jiang, K., Judd, E. G., Kabana, S., Kalinkin, D., Kang, K., Kauder, K., Ke, H. W., Keane, D., Kechechyan, A., Khan, Z. H., Kikoła, D. P., Kisel, I., Kisiel, A., Klein, S., Kochenda, L., Koetke, D. D., Kollegger, T., Kosarzewski, L. K., Kraishan, A. F., Kravtsov, P., Krueger, K., Kulakov, I., Kumar, L., Kycia, R. A., Lamont, M. A. C., Landgraf, J. M., Landry, K. D., Lauret, J., Lebedev, A., Lednicky, R., Lee, J. H., Li, X., Li, Z. M., Li, Y., Li, W., Li, X., Li, C., Lisa, M. A., Liu, F., Ljubicic, T., Llope, W. J., Lomnitz, M., Longacre, R. S., Luo, X., Ma, G. L., Ma, R., Ma, Y. G., Ma, L., Magdy, N., Majka, R., Manion, A., Margetis, S., Markert, C., Masui, H., Matis, H. S., McDonald, D., Meehan, K., Minaev, N. G., Mioduszewski, S., Mishra, D., Mohanty, B., Mondal, M. M., Morozov, D. A., Mustafa, M. K., Nandi, B. K., Nasim, Md., Nayak, T. K., Nigmatkulov, G., Nogach, L. V., Noh, S. Y., Novak, J., Nurushev, S. B., Odyniec, G., Ogawa, A., Oh, K., Okorokov, V., Olvitt, D., Page, B. S., Pak, R., Pan, Y. X., Pandit, Y., Panebratsev, Y., Pawlik, B., Pei, H., Perkins, C., Peterson, A., Pile, P., Planinic, M., Pluta, J., Poljak, N., Poniatowska, K., Porter, J., Posik, M., Poskanzer, A. M., Putschke, J., Qiu, H., Quintero, A., Ramachandran, S., Raniwala, R., Raniwala, S., Ray, R. L., Ritter, H. G., Roberts, J. B., Rogachevskiy, O. V., Romero, J. L., Roy, A., Ruan, L., Rusnak, J., Rusnakova, O., Sahoo, N. R., Sahu, P. K., Sakrejda, I., Salur, S., Sandweiss, J., Sarkar, A., Schambach, J., Scharenberg, R. P., Schmah, A. M., Schmidke, W. B., Schmitz, N., Seger, J., Seyboth, P., Shah, N., Shahaliev, E., Shanmuganathan, P. V., Shao, M., Sharma, M. K., Sharma, B., Shen, W. Q., Shi, S. S., Shou, Q. Y., Sichtermann, E. P., Sikora, R., Simko, M., Skoby, M. J., Smirnov, N., Smirnov, D., Song, L., Sorensen, P., Spinka, H. M., Srivastava, B., Stanislaus, T. D. S., Stepanov, M., Stock, R., Strikhanov, M., Stringfellow, B., Sumbera, M., Summa, B., Sun, Z., Sun, X. M., Sun, Y., Sun, X., Surrow, B., Svirida, N., Szelezniak, M. A., Tang, Z., Tang, A. H., Tarnowsky, T., Tawfik, A., Thomas, J. H., Timmins, A. R., Tlusty, D., Tokarev, M., Trentalange, S., Tribble, R. E., Tribedy, P., Tripathy, S. K., Trzeciak, B. A., Tsai, O. D., Ullrich, T., Underwood, D. G., Upsal, I., Van Buren, G., van Nieuwenhuizen, G., Vandenbroucke, M., Varma, R., Vasiliev, A. N., Vertesi, R., Videbæk, F., Viyogi, Y. P., Vokal, S., Voloshin, S. A., Vossen, A., Wang, G., Wang, H., Wang, J. S., Wang, Y., Wang, Y., Wang, F., Webb, J. C., Webb, G., Wen, L., Westfall, G. D., Wieman, H., Wissink, S. W., Witt, R., Wu, Y. F., Xiao, Z. G., Xie, W., Xin, K., Xu, Y. F., Xu, Q. H., Xu, H., Xu, N., Xu, Z., Yang, Y., Yang, C., Yang, S., Yang, Y., Yang, Q., Ye, Z., Yepes, P., Yi, L., Yip, K., Yoo, I. -K., Yu, N., Zbroszczyk, H., Zha, W., Zhang, J. B., Zhang, Z., Zhang, J., Zhang, S., Zhang, X. P., Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., Zhao, J., Zhong, C., Zhou, L., Zhu, X., Zoulkarneeva, Y., & Zyzak, M. Measurement of interaction between antiprotons. United States. doi:10.1038/nature15724.
Adamczyk, L., Adkins, J. K., Agakishiev, G., Aggarwal, M. M., Ahammed, Z., Alekseev, I., Alford, J., Aparin, A., Arkhipkin, D., Aschenauer, E. C., Averichev, G. S., Bairathi, V., Banerjee, A., Bellwied, R., Bhasin, A., Bhati, A. K., Bhattarai, P., Bielcik, J., Bielcikova, J., Bland, L. C., Bordyuzhin, I. G., Bouchet, J., Brandenburg, J. D., Brandin, A. V., Bunzarov, I., Butterworth, J., Caines, H., Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M., Campbell, J. M., Cebra, D., Cervantes, M. C., Chakaberia, I., Chaloupka, P., Chang, Z., Chattopadhyay, S., Chen, J. H., Chen, X., Cheng, J., Cherney, M., Christie, W., Contin, G., Crawford, H. J., Das, S., De Silva, L. C., Debbe, R. R., Dedovich, T. G., Deng, J., Derevschikov, A. A., di Ruzza, B., Didenko, L., Dilks, C., Dong, X., Drachenberg, J. L., Draper, J. E., Du, C. M., Dunkelberger, L. E., Dunlop, J. C., Efimov, L. G., Engelage, J., Eppley, G., Esha, R., Evdokimov, O., Eyser, O., Fatemi, R., Fazio, S., Federic, P., Fedorisin, J., Feng, Z., Filip, P., Fisyak, Y., Flores, C. E., Fulek, L., Gagliardi, C. A., Garand, D., Geurts, F., Gibson, A., Girard, M., Greiner, L., Grosnick, D., Gunarathne, D. S., Guo, Y., Gupta, A., Gupta, S., Guryn, W., Hamad, A., Hamed, A., Haque, R., Harris, J. W., He, L., Heppelmann, S., Heppelmann, S., Hirsch, A., Hoffmann, G. W., Hofman, D. J., Horvat, S., Huang, B., Huang, H. Z., Huang, X., Huck, P., Humanic, T. J., Igo, G., Jacobs, W. W., Jang, H., Jiang, K., Judd, E. G., Kabana, S., Kalinkin, D., Kang, K., Kauder, K., Ke, H. W., Keane, D., Kechechyan, A., Khan, Z. H., Kikoła, D. P., Kisel, I., Kisiel, A., Klein, S., Kochenda, L., Koetke, D. D., Kollegger, T., Kosarzewski, L. K., Kraishan, A. F., Kravtsov, P., Krueger, K., Kulakov, I., Kumar, L., Kycia, R. A., Lamont, M. A. C., Landgraf, J. M., Landry, K. D., Lauret, J., Lebedev, A., Lednicky, R., Lee, J. H., Li, X., Li, Z. M., Li, Y., Li, W., Li, X., Li, C., Lisa, M. A., Liu, F., Ljubicic, T., Llope, W. J., Lomnitz, M., Longacre, R. S., Luo, X., Ma, G. L., Ma, R., Ma, Y. G., Ma, L., Magdy, N., Majka, R., Manion, A., Margetis, S., Markert, C., Masui, H., Matis, H. S., McDonald, D., Meehan, K., Minaev, N. G., Mioduszewski, S., Mishra, D., Mohanty, B., Mondal, M. M., Morozov, D. A., Mustafa, M. K., Nandi, B. K., Nasim, Md., Nayak, T. K., Nigmatkulov, G., Nogach, L. V., Noh, S. Y., Novak, J., Nurushev, S. B., Odyniec, G., Ogawa, A., Oh, K., Okorokov, V., Olvitt, D., Page, B. S., Pak, R., Pan, Y. X., Pandit, Y., Panebratsev, Y., Pawlik, B., Pei, H., Perkins, C., Peterson, A., Pile, P., Planinic, M., Pluta, J., Poljak, N., Poniatowska, K., Porter, J., Posik, M., Poskanzer, A. M., Putschke, J., Qiu, H., Quintero, A., Ramachandran, S., Raniwala, R., Raniwala, S., Ray, R. L., Ritter, H. G., Roberts, J. B., Rogachevskiy, O. V., Romero, J. L., Roy, A., Ruan, L., Rusnak, J., Rusnakova, O., Sahoo, N. R., Sahu, P. K., Sakrejda, I., Salur, S., Sandweiss, J., Sarkar, A., Schambach, J., Scharenberg, R. P., Schmah, A. M., Schmidke, W. B., Schmitz, N., Seger, J., Seyboth, P., Shah, N., Shahaliev, E., Shanmuganathan, P. V., Shao, M., Sharma, M. K., Sharma, B., Shen, W. Q., Shi, S. S., Shou, Q. Y., Sichtermann, E. P., Sikora, R., Simko, M., Skoby, M. J., Smirnov, N., Smirnov, D., Song, L., Sorensen, P., Spinka, H. M., Srivastava, B., Stanislaus, T. D. S., Stepanov, M., Stock, R., Strikhanov, M., Stringfellow, B., Sumbera, M., Summa, B., Sun, Z., Sun, X. M., Sun, Y., Sun, X., Surrow, B., Svirida, N., Szelezniak, M. A., Tang, Z., Tang, A. H., Tarnowsky, T., Tawfik, A., Thomas, J. H., Timmins, A. R., Tlusty, D., Tokarev, M., Trentalange, S., Tribble, R. E., Tribedy, P., Tripathy, S. K., Trzeciak, B. A., Tsai, O. D., Ullrich, T., Underwood, D. G., Upsal, I., Van Buren, G., van Nieuwenhuizen, G., Vandenbroucke, M., Varma, R., Vasiliev, A. N., Vertesi, R., Videbæk, F., Viyogi, Y. P., Vokal, S., Voloshin, S. A., Vossen, A., Wang, G., Wang, H., Wang, J. S., Wang, Y., Wang, Y., Wang, F., Webb, J. C., Webb, G., Wen, L., Westfall, G. D., Wieman, H., Wissink, S. W., Witt, R., Wu, Y. F., Xiao, Z. G., Xie, W., Xin, K., Xu, Y. F., Xu, Q. H., Xu, H., Xu, N., Xu, Z., Yang, Y., Yang, C., Yang, S., Yang, Y., Yang, Q., Ye, Z., Yepes, P., Yi, L., Yip, K., Yoo, I. -K., Yu, N., Zbroszczyk, H., Zha, W., Zhang, J. B., Zhang, Z., Zhang, J., Zhang, S., Zhang, X. P., Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., Zhao, J., Zhong, C., Zhou, L., Zhu, X., Zoulkarneeva, Y., and Zyzak, M. Wed . "Measurement of interaction between antiprotons". United States. doi:10.1038/nature15724. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1340342.
@article{osti_1340342,
title = {Measurement of interaction between antiprotons},
author = {Adamczyk, L. and Adkins, J. K. and Agakishiev, G. and Aggarwal, M. M. and Ahammed, Z. and Alekseev, I. and Alford, J. and Aparin, A. and Arkhipkin, D. and Aschenauer, E. C. and Averichev, G. S. and Bairathi, V. and Banerjee, A. and Bellwied, R. and Bhasin, A. and Bhati, A. K. and Bhattarai, P. and Bielcik, J. and Bielcikova, J. and Bland, L. C. and Bordyuzhin, I. G. and Bouchet, J. and Brandenburg, J. D. and Brandin, A. V. and Bunzarov, I. and Butterworth, J. and Caines, H. and Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M. and Campbell, J. M. and Cebra, D. and Cervantes, M. C. and Chakaberia, I. and Chaloupka, P. and Chang, Z. and Chattopadhyay, S. and Chen, J. H. and Chen, X. and Cheng, J. and Cherney, M. and Christie, W. and Contin, G. and Crawford, H. J. and Das, S. and De Silva, L. C. and Debbe, R. R. and Dedovich, T. G. and Deng, J. and Derevschikov, A. A. and di Ruzza, B. and Didenko, L. and Dilks, C. and Dong, X. and Drachenberg, J. L. and Draper, J. E. and Du, C. M. and Dunkelberger, L. E. and Dunlop, J. C. and Efimov, L. G. and Engelage, J. and Eppley, G. and Esha, R. and Evdokimov, O. and Eyser, O. and Fatemi, R. and Fazio, S. and Federic, P. and Fedorisin, J. and Feng, Z. and Filip, P. and Fisyak, Y. and Flores, C. E. and Fulek, L. and Gagliardi, C. A. and Garand, D. and Geurts, F. and Gibson, A. and Girard, M. and Greiner, L. and Grosnick, D. and Gunarathne, D. S. and Guo, Y. and Gupta, A. and Gupta, S. and Guryn, W. and Hamad, A. and Hamed, A. and Haque, R. and Harris, J. W. and He, L. and Heppelmann, S. and Heppelmann, S. and Hirsch, A. and Hoffmann, G. W. and Hofman, D. J. and Horvat, S. and Huang, B. and Huang, H. Z. and Huang, X. and Huck, P. and Humanic, T. J. and Igo, G. and Jacobs, W. W. and Jang, H. and Jiang, K. and Judd, E. G. and Kabana, S. and Kalinkin, D. and Kang, K. and Kauder, K. and Ke, H. W. and Keane, D. and Kechechyan, A. and Khan, Z. H. and Kikoła, D. 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abstractNote = {In this paper, one of the primary goals of nuclear physics is to understand the force between nucleons, which is a necessary step for understanding the structure of nuclei and how nuclei interact with each other. Rutherford discovered the atomic nucleus in 1911, and the large body of knowledge about the nuclear force that has since been acquired was derived from studies made on nucleons or nuclei. Although antinuclei up to antihelium-4 have been discovered and their masses measured, little is known directly about the nuclear force between antinucleons. Here, we study antiproton pair correlations among data collected by the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), where gold ions are collided with a centre-of-mass energy of 200 gigaelectronvolts per nucleon pair. Antiprotons are abundantly produced in such collisions, thus making it feasible to study details of the antiproton–antiproton interaction. By applying a technique similar to Hanbury Brown and Twiss intensity interferometry, we show that the force between two antiprotons is attractive. In addition, we report two key parameters that characterize the corresponding strong interaction: the scattering length and the effective range of the interaction. Our measured parameters are consistent within errors with the corresponding values for proton–proton interactions. Our results provide direct information on the interaction between two antiprotons, one of the simplest systems of antinucleons, and so are fundamental to understanding the structure of more-complex antinuclei and their properties.},
doi = {10.1038/nature15724},
journal = {Nature (London)},
number = 7578,
volume = 527,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {11}
}

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