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Title: Diesel Fuel Property Effects on In-Cylinder Liquid Penetration Length: Impact on Smoke Emissions and Equivalence Ratio Estimates at the Flame Lift-Off Length

Here in this study, elastic scattering was employed to investigate diesel fuel property effects on the liquid length (i.e., the maximum extent of in-cylinder liquid-phase fuel penetration) using select research fuels: an ultralow-sulfur #2 diesel emissions-certification fuel (CF) and four of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuels (F1, F2, F6, and F8). The experiments were performed in a single-cylinder heavy-duty optical compression-ignition engine under time-varying, noncombusting conditions to minimize the influence of chemical heat release on the liquid-length measurement. The FACE diesel fuel and CF liquid lengths under combusting conditions were also predicted using Siebers’ scaling law and pressure data from previous work using the same fuels at similar in-cylinder conditions. The objective was to observe if the liquid length under noncombusting or combusting conditions provides additional insights into the relationships among the main fuel properties (i.e., cetane number (CN), the 90 vol % distillation recovery temperature (T90), and aromatic content) and smoke emissions. Results suggest that liquid-length values are best correlated to fuel distillation characteristics measured with ASTM D2887 (simulated distillation method). This work also studied the relationship between liquid length and lift-off length, H (i.e., distance from the fuel-injector orifice exit to the position where the standing premixed autoignition zone stabilizes during mixing-controlled combustion). Two possible cases were identified based on the relative magnitudes of liquid length under combusting conditions (Lc) and H. The low-CN fuels are representative of the first case, L c < H, in which the fuel is always fully vaporized at H. The high-CN fuels are mostly representative of the second case, L c ≥ H, in which there is still liquid fuel at H. Lc ≥ H would suggest higher smoke emissions, but there is not enough evidence in this work to support a compounding effect of a longer liquid length on top of the aromatic-content effect on smoke emissions for fuels with similar CN, supporting previous findings in the literature that lift-off length plays a more important role than liquid-length on diesel combustion. At the same time, the experimental results suggest a decrease in the fuel-jet spreading angle, i.e., a decrease in the entrainment rate into the jet at and downstream of H, under combusting conditions, that is not accounted for in the model used to predict the values of $$\phi$$(H). Lastly, as a result, L c may be of interest for accurate predictions of $$\phi$$(H), especially for combustion strategies designed to lower in-cylinder soot by operating near or below the nonsooting $$\phi$$(H)-value (i.e., $$\phi$$(H) ≈ 2).
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [4]
  1. West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)
  2. Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)
  3. Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States)
  4. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0887-0624; 649750
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energy and Fuels
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 29; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 0887-0624
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
02 PETROLEUM; fuel effects; liquid length; lift-off length; mixture formation; diesel engine; FACE fuels
OSTI Identifier: