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Title: Transition metal dissolution, ion migration, electrocatalytic reduction and capacity loss in Lithium-ion full cells

Continuous operation of full cells with layered transition metal (TM) oxide positive electrodes (NCM523) leads to dissolution of TM ions and their migration and incorporation into the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) of the graphite-based negative electrode. These processes correlate with cell capacity fade and accelerate markedly as the upper cutoff voltage (UCV) exceeds 4.30 V. At voltages ≥ 4.4 V there is enhanced fracture of the oxide during cycling that creates new surfaces and causes increased solvent oxidation and TM dissolution. Despite this deterioration, cell capacity fade still mainly results from lithium loss in the negative electrode SEI. Among TMs, Mn content in the SEI shows a better correlation with cell capacity loss than Co and Ni contents. As Mn ions become incorporated into the SEI, the kinetics of lithium trapping change from power to linear at the higher UCVs, indicating a large effect of these ions on SEI growth and implicating (electro)catalytic reactions. Lastly, we estimate that each Mn II ion deposited in the SEI causes trapping of ~10 2 additional Li + ions thereby hastening the depletion of cyclable lithium ions. Using these results, we sketch a mechanism for cell capacity fade, emphasizing the conceptual picture over themore » chemical detail.« less
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  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 164; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
The Electrochemical Society
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
Country of Publication:
United States
25 ENERGY STORAGE; NCA; NCM523 oxide; SEI; electrochemistry; graphite; high voltage; layered oxides; manganese; nickel
OSTI Identifier: