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Title: Evaluation of formation water chemistry and scale prediction: Bakken Shale

Determination of in situ formation water chemistry is an essential component of reservoir management. This study details the use of thermodynamic computer models to calculate reservoir pH and restore produced water analyses for prediction of scale formation. Bakken produced water samples were restored to formation conditions and calculations of scale formation performed. In situ pH is controlled by feldspar-clay equilibria. Calcite scale is readily formed due to changes in pH during pressure drop from in situ to surface conditions. The formation of anhydrite and halite scale, which has been observed, was predicted only for the most saline samples. Finally, in addition, the formation of anhydrite and/or halite may be related to the localized conditions of increased salinity as water is partitioned into the gas phase during production.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2]
  1. ESal LLC, Laramie, WY (United States)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
SAND2015-9055J
Journal ID: ISSN 0883-2927; PII: S0883292716304267
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Geochemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 75; Journal ID: ISSN 0883-2927
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program; USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Contributing Orgs:
ESal LLC, Laramie, WY (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Formation water chemistry; Bakken Shale; Scale formation; Geochemical models
OSTI Identifier:
1339255
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1413040