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Title: Quantification of surface displacements and electromechanical phenomena via dynamic atomic force microscopy

Detection of dynamic surface displacements associated with local changes in material strain provides access to a number of phenomena and material properties. Contact resonance-enhanced methods of atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been shown capable of detecting ~1–3 pm-level surface displacements, an approach used in techniques such as piezoresponse force microscopy, atomic force acoustic microscopy, and ultrasonic force microscopy. Here, based on an analytical model of AFM cantilever vibrations, we demonstrate a guideline to quantify surface displacements with high accuracy by taking into account the cantilever shape at the first resonant contact mode, depending on the tip–sample contact stiffness. The approach has been experimentally verified and further developed for piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) using well-defined ferroelectric materials. These results open up a way to accurate and precise measurements of surface displacement as well as piezoelectric constants at the pm-scale with nanometer spatial resolution and will allow avoiding erroneous data interpretations and measurement artifacts. Furthermore, this analysis is directly applicable to all cantilever-resonance-based scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [4]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (People's Republic of China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (People's Republic of China); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Saitama (Japan)
  3. Southern Research, Birmingham, AL (United States)
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nanotechnology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 27; Journal Issue: 42; Journal ID: ISSN 0957-4484
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; scanning probe microscopy; ferroelectrics; cantilever dynamics
OSTI Identifier:
1338484