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Title: Pressure and temperature effects on fuels with varying octane sensitivity at high load in SI engines

The octane sensitivity (S), defined as the difference between the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON), is of increasing interest in spark ignition (SI) engines because of its relevance to knock resistance at boosted high load conditions. In this study, three fuels with nearly constant RON (99.2-100) and varying S (S = 0, 6.5, and 12) are operated at the knock limited spark advance (KLSA) at nominal engine loads of 10, 15, and 20 bar IMEP in a single cylinder SI engine with side-mount direct injection fueling, at λ =1 stoichiometry. At each load condition, the intake manifold temperature is swept from 35 °C to 95 °C to alter the temperature and pressure history of the charge. Results show that at the 10 bar IMEP condition, knock resistance is inversely proportional to fuel S where the S=0 fuel is the most knock resist, but as load increases the trend reverses and knock resistance becomes proportional to fuel S, and the S=12 fuel is the most knock resistant. The reversal of knock resistance as a function of S with load it is attributed to changing fuel ignition delay, as bulk gas intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR) ismore » observed for the S = 0 several crank angles prior to the spark command and ITHR magnitude is a function of increasing intake temperature. As intake temperature continued to increase, the S=0 fuel transitioned from ITHR to low-temperature heat release (LTHR) prior to the spark event. At the highest load and intake temperature, 95 C, the S=0 fuel exhibits distinct LTHR and negative temperature coefficient (NTC), and the intermediate S value fuel (S=6.5) exhibited distinct ITHR behavior several crank angles prior to the spark command. However, for the tested conditions, the S=12 fuel exhibits neither ITHR nor LTHR. To understand the measured trends, chemical kinetic modeling is used to elucidate the fuel specific dependencies on in-cylinder temperature and pressure history. Lastly, the bulk gas composition change that occurs for fuels and conditions exhibiting ITHR and LTHR is analyzed in the modeling, including their implications on flame speed and combustion stability at late phasing. Furthermore, the combined findings illustrate the commonality and utility of fuel S, ITHR, LTHR, and NTC across a wide range of conditions, and the associated implications of fuel S in highly boosted modern GDI SI engines relative to the RON and MON tests.« less
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Combustion and Flame
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 177; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0010-2180
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center (FEERC); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center (NTRC)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; LTHR; ITHR; octane; knock; octane sensitivity; boost; octane index; low temperature heat release; intermediate heat release; negative temperature coefficient
OSTI Identifier:
1338412
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1338495

Szybist, James P., and Splitter, Derek A.. Pressure and temperature effects on fuels with varying octane sensitivity at high load in SI engines. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2016.12.002.
Szybist, James P., & Splitter, Derek A.. Pressure and temperature effects on fuels with varying octane sensitivity at high load in SI engines. United States. doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2016.12.002.
Szybist, James P., and Splitter, Derek A.. 2017. "Pressure and temperature effects on fuels with varying octane sensitivity at high load in SI engines". United States. doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2016.12.002.
@article{osti_1338412,
title = {Pressure and temperature effects on fuels with varying octane sensitivity at high load in SI engines},
author = {Szybist, James P. and Splitter, Derek A.},
abstractNote = {The octane sensitivity (S), defined as the difference between the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON), is of increasing interest in spark ignition (SI) engines because of its relevance to knock resistance at boosted high load conditions. In this study, three fuels with nearly constant RON (99.2-100) and varying S (S = 0, 6.5, and 12) are operated at the knock limited spark advance (KLSA) at nominal engine loads of 10, 15, and 20 bar IMEP in a single cylinder SI engine with side-mount direct injection fueling, at λ =1 stoichiometry. At each load condition, the intake manifold temperature is swept from 35 °C to 95 °C to alter the temperature and pressure history of the charge. Results show that at the 10 bar IMEP condition, knock resistance is inversely proportional to fuel S where the S=0 fuel is the most knock resist, but as load increases the trend reverses and knock resistance becomes proportional to fuel S, and the S=12 fuel is the most knock resistant. The reversal of knock resistance as a function of S with load it is attributed to changing fuel ignition delay, as bulk gas intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR) is observed for the S = 0 several crank angles prior to the spark command and ITHR magnitude is a function of increasing intake temperature. As intake temperature continued to increase, the S=0 fuel transitioned from ITHR to low-temperature heat release (LTHR) prior to the spark event. At the highest load and intake temperature, 95 C, the S=0 fuel exhibits distinct LTHR and negative temperature coefficient (NTC), and the intermediate S value fuel (S=6.5) exhibited distinct ITHR behavior several crank angles prior to the spark command. However, for the tested conditions, the S=12 fuel exhibits neither ITHR nor LTHR. To understand the measured trends, chemical kinetic modeling is used to elucidate the fuel specific dependencies on in-cylinder temperature and pressure history. Lastly, the bulk gas composition change that occurs for fuels and conditions exhibiting ITHR and LTHR is analyzed in the modeling, including their implications on flame speed and combustion stability at late phasing. Furthermore, the combined findings illustrate the commonality and utility of fuel S, ITHR, LTHR, and NTC across a wide range of conditions, and the associated implications of fuel S in highly boosted modern GDI SI engines relative to the RON and MON tests.},
doi = {10.1016/j.combustflame.2016.12.002},
journal = {Combustion and Flame},
number = C,
volume = 177,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {1}
}