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Title: A non-LTE analysis of high energy density Kr plasmas on Z and NIF

Abstract

We report that multi-keV X-ray radiation sources have a wide range of applications, from biomedical studies and research on thermonuclear fusion to materials science and astrophysics. The refurbished Z pulsed power machine at the Sandia National Laboratories produces intense multi-keV X-rays from argon Z-pinches, but for a krypton Z-pinch, the yield decreases much faster with atomic number Z A than similar sources on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. To investigate whether fundamental energy deposition differences between pulsed power and lasers could account for the yield differences, we consider the Kr plasma on the two machines. The analysis assumes the plasma not in local thermodynamic equilibrium, with a detailed coupling between the hydrodynamics, the radiation field, and the ionization physics. While for the plasma parameters of interest the details of krypton’s M-shell are not crucial, both the L-shell and the K-shell must be modeled in reasonable detail, including the state-specific dielectronic recombination processes that significantly affect Kr’s ionization balance and the resulting X-ray spectrum. We present a detailed description of the atomic model, provide synthetic K- and L-shell spectra, and compare these with the available experimental data from the Z-machine and from NIF tomore » show that the K-shell yield behavior versus Z A is indeed related to the energy input characteristics. In conclusion, this work aims at understanding the probable causes that might explain the differences in the X-ray conversion efficiencies of several radiation sources on Z and« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [5];  [5];  [5]; ORCiD logo [5];  [5]
  1. Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Division
  2. Berkeley Research Associates, Beltsville, MD (United States)
  3. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  4. Engility Corporation, Chantilly, VA (United States)
  5. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1338408
Report Number(s):
SAND2016-12903J
Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X; 650103; TRN: US1701357
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 23; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; Radioactive sources; Plasma temperature; X-rays; Z pinch; Ionization

Citation Formats

Dasgupta, A., Clark, R. W., Ouart, N., Giuliani, J., Velikovich, A., Ampleford, D. J., Hansen, S. B., Jennings, C., Harvey-Thompson, A. J., Jones, B., Flanagan, T. M., Bell, K. S., Apruzese, J. P., Fournier, K. B., Scott, H. A., May, M. J., Barrios, M. A., Colvin, J. D., and Kemp, G. E. A non-LTE analysis of high energy density Kr plasmas on Z and NIF. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4965243.
Dasgupta, A., Clark, R. W., Ouart, N., Giuliani, J., Velikovich, A., Ampleford, D. J., Hansen, S. B., Jennings, C., Harvey-Thompson, A. J., Jones, B., Flanagan, T. M., Bell, K. S., Apruzese, J. P., Fournier, K. B., Scott, H. A., May, M. J., Barrios, M. A., Colvin, J. D., & Kemp, G. E. A non-LTE analysis of high energy density Kr plasmas on Z and NIF. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4965243.
Dasgupta, A., Clark, R. W., Ouart, N., Giuliani, J., Velikovich, A., Ampleford, D. J., Hansen, S. B., Jennings, C., Harvey-Thompson, A. J., Jones, B., Flanagan, T. M., Bell, K. S., Apruzese, J. P., Fournier, K. B., Scott, H. A., May, M. J., Barrios, M. A., Colvin, J. D., and Kemp, G. E. Thu . "A non-LTE analysis of high energy density Kr plasmas on Z and NIF". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4965243. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1338408.
@article{osti_1338408,
title = {A non-LTE analysis of high energy density Kr plasmas on Z and NIF},
author = {Dasgupta, A. and Clark, R. W. and Ouart, N. and Giuliani, J. and Velikovich, A. and Ampleford, D. J. and Hansen, S. B. and Jennings, C. and Harvey-Thompson, A. J. and Jones, B. and Flanagan, T. M. and Bell, K. S. and Apruzese, J. P. and Fournier, K. B. and Scott, H. A. and May, M. J. and Barrios, M. A. and Colvin, J. D. and Kemp, G. E.},
abstractNote = {We report that multi-keV X-ray radiation sources have a wide range of applications, from biomedical studies and research on thermonuclear fusion to materials science and astrophysics. The refurbished Z pulsed power machine at the Sandia National Laboratories produces intense multi-keV X-rays from argon Z-pinches, but for a krypton Z-pinch, the yield decreases much faster with atomic number ZA than similar sources on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. To investigate whether fundamental energy deposition differences between pulsed power and lasers could account for the yield differences, we consider the Kr plasma on the two machines. The analysis assumes the plasma not in local thermodynamic equilibrium, with a detailed coupling between the hydrodynamics, the radiation field, and the ionization physics. While for the plasma parameters of interest the details of krypton’s M-shell are not crucial, both the L-shell and the K-shell must be modeled in reasonable detail, including the state-specific dielectronic recombination processes that significantly affect Kr’s ionization balance and the resulting X-ray spectrum. We present a detailed description of the atomic model, provide synthetic K- and L-shell spectra, and compare these with the available experimental data from the Z-machine and from NIF to show that the K-shell yield behavior versus ZA is indeed related to the energy input characteristics. In conclusion, this work aims at understanding the probable causes that might explain the differences in the X-ray conversion efficiencies of several radiation sources on Z and},
doi = {10.1063/1.4965243},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 10,
volume = 23,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {10}
}

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