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Title: Reaction-space analysis of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion with varying levels of fuel stratification under positive and negative valve overlap conditions

Full-cycle computational fluid dynamics simulations with gasoline chemical kinetics were performed to determine the impact of breathing and fuel injection strategies on thermal and compositional stratification, combustion and emissions during homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. The simulations examined positive valve overlap and negative valve overlap strategies, along with fueling by port fuel injection and direct injection. The resulting charge mass distributions were analyzed prior to ignition using ignition delay as a reactivity metric. The reactivity stratification arising from differences in the distributions of fuel–oxygen equivalence ratio (Φ FO), oxygen molar fraction (χ O2) and temperature (T) was determined for three parametric studies. In the first study, the reactivity stratification and burn duration for positive valve overlap valve events with port fuel injection and early direct injection were nearly identical and were dominated by wall-driven thermal stratification. nitrogen oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were negligible for both injection strategies. In the second study, which examined negative valve overlap valve events with direct injection and port fuel injection, reactivity stratification increased for direct injection as the Φ FO and T distributions associated with direct fuel injection into the hot residual gas were positively correlated; however, the latent heat absorbed frommore » the hot residual gas by the evaporating direct injection fuel jet reduced the overall thermal and reactivity stratification. These stratification effects were offsetting, resulting in similar reactivity stratification and burn durations for the two injection strategies. The higher local burned gas temperatures with direct injection resulted in an order of magnitude increase in NO, while incomplete combustion of locally over-lean regions led to a sevenfold increase in CO emissions compared to port fuel injection. The final study evaluated positive valve overlap and negative valve overlap valve events with direct injection. Furthermore, relative to positive valve overlap, the negative valve overlap condition had a wider reactivity stratification, a longer burn duration and higher NO and CO emissions associated with reduced fuel–air mixing.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2]
  1. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  2. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  3. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
International Journal of Engine Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 17; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 1468-0874
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; CFD; HCCI; NO; NVO; PFI; PVO; direct injection; reactivity stratification; homogeneous charge compression ignition; port fuel injection; negative valve overlap; positive valve overlap; computational fluid dynamics
OSTI Identifier: