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Title: Evaluation of Surface Flux Parameterizations with Long-Term ARM Observations

Abstract

Surface momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat fluxes are critical for atmospheric processes such as clouds and precipitation, and are parameterized in a variety of models ranging from cloud-resolving models to large-scale weather and climate models. However, direct evaluation of the parameterization schemes for these surface fluxes is rare due to limited observations. This study takes advantage of the long-term observations of surface fluxes collected at the Southern Great Plains site by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program to evaluate the six surface flux parameterization schemes commonly used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and three U.S. general circulation models (GCMs). The unprecedented 7-yr-long measurements by the eddy correlation (EC) and energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) methods permit statistical evaluation of all six parameterizations under a variety of stability conditions, diurnal cycles, and seasonal variations. The statistical analyses show that the momentum flux parameterization agrees best with the EC observations, followed by latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, and evaporation ratio/Bowen ratio. The overall performance of the parameterizations depends on atmospheric stability, being best under neutral stratification and deteriorating toward both more stable and more unstable conditions. Further diagnostic analysis reveals that in addition to themore » parameterization schemes themselves, the discrepancies between observed and parameterized sensible and latent heat fluxes may stem from inadequate use of input variables such as surface temperature, moisture availability, and roughness length. The results demonstrate the need for improving the land surface models and measurements of surface properties, which would permit the evaluation of full land surface models.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1337651
Report Number(s):
BNL-113309-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0027-0644; R&D Project: 2016-BNL-EE630EECA-Budg; KP1701000
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC00112704
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Weather Review
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 141; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-0644
Publisher:
American Meteorological Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Atmosphere-land interaction; Surface fluxes; Parameterization

Citation Formats

Liu, Gang, Liu, Yangang, and Endo, Satoshi. Evaluation of Surface Flux Parameterizations with Long-Term ARM Observations. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-12-00095.1.
Liu, Gang, Liu, Yangang, & Endo, Satoshi. Evaluation of Surface Flux Parameterizations with Long-Term ARM Observations. United States. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-12-00095.1.
Liu, Gang, Liu, Yangang, and Endo, Satoshi. Fri . "Evaluation of Surface Flux Parameterizations with Long-Term ARM Observations". United States. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-12-00095.1. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1337651.
@article{osti_1337651,
title = {Evaluation of Surface Flux Parameterizations with Long-Term ARM Observations},
author = {Liu, Gang and Liu, Yangang and Endo, Satoshi},
abstractNote = {Surface momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat fluxes are critical for atmospheric processes such as clouds and precipitation, and are parameterized in a variety of models ranging from cloud-resolving models to large-scale weather and climate models. However, direct evaluation of the parameterization schemes for these surface fluxes is rare due to limited observations. This study takes advantage of the long-term observations of surface fluxes collected at the Southern Great Plains site by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program to evaluate the six surface flux parameterization schemes commonly used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and three U.S. general circulation models (GCMs). The unprecedented 7-yr-long measurements by the eddy correlation (EC) and energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) methods permit statistical evaluation of all six parameterizations under a variety of stability conditions, diurnal cycles, and seasonal variations. The statistical analyses show that the momentum flux parameterization agrees best with the EC observations, followed by latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, and evaporation ratio/Bowen ratio. The overall performance of the parameterizations depends on atmospheric stability, being best under neutral stratification and deteriorating toward both more stable and more unstable conditions. Further diagnostic analysis reveals that in addition to the parameterization schemes themselves, the discrepancies between observed and parameterized sensible and latent heat fluxes may stem from inadequate use of input variables such as surface temperature, moisture availability, and roughness length. The results demonstrate the need for improving the land surface models and measurements of surface properties, which would permit the evaluation of full land surface models.},
doi = {10.1175/MWR-D-12-00095.1},
journal = {Monthly Weather Review},
number = 2,
volume = 141,
place = {United States},
year = {2013},
month = {2}
}

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