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Title: The effect of sub-oxide phases on the transparency of tin-doped gallium oxide

There have been a number of studies on the fabrication of Sn-doped gallium oxide (Ga 2O 3:Sn) films with both conductive and transparent properties using a variety of deposition methods. However, often, synthesis results in films that are not transparent. In this paper, we examine the mechanisms underlying these results in Ga 2O 3:Sn thin films prepared at various growth temperatures, Sn concentrations, and oxygen partial pressures. With X-ray absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, we find that when films are grown under the oxygen deficient conditions there are Ga sub-oxide and SnO x phases in the Ga 2O 3:Sn thin film. These Ga sub-oxide phases are only found in non-transparent films, and so we infer that the Ga sub-oxide is responsible for the non-transparency. Furthermore, these observations suggest that to obtain transparent Ga 2O 3:Sn, films deposition or subsequent annealing must be carefully controlled in both temperature and oxygen partial pressure to avoid the formation of Ga sub-oxide phases.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ; ORCiD logo [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [4] ;  [3] ;  [2]
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  2. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  3. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  4. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  5. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
  6. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
SLAC-PUB-16851; NREL/JA-5K00-67389
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951; APPLAB
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357; AC02-76SF00515; AC36-08GO28308
Published Article
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 14; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; x-ray absorption near edge structure; extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy; transmission electron microscopy; thin film growth; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1328233; OSTI ID: 1329641; OSTI ID: 1331242