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Title: Imaging Taurine in the Central Nervous System Using Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging at the Sulfur K-Edge

A method to image taurine distributions within the central nervous system and other organs has long been sought. Since taurine is small and mobile, it cannot be chemically “tagged” and imaged using conventional immuno-histochemistry methods. Combining numerous indirect measurements, taurine is known to play critical roles in brain function during health and disease and is proposed to act as a neuro-osmolyte, neuro-modulator, and possibly a neuro-transmitter. Elucidation of taurine’s neurochemical roles and importance would be substantially enhanced by a direct method to visualize alterations, due to physiological and pathological events in the brain, in the local concentration of taurine at or near cellular spatial resolution in vivo or in situ in tissue sections. We thus have developed chemically specific X-ray fluorescence imaging (XFI) at the sulfur K-edge to image the sulfonate group in taurine in situ in ex vivo tissue sections. To our knowledge, this represents the first undistorted imaging of taurine distribution in brain at 20 μm resolution. We report quantitative technique validation by imaging taurine in the cerebellum and hippocampus regions of the rat brain. Further, we apply the technique to image taurine loss from the vulnerable CA1 (cornus ammonis 1) sector of the rat hippocampus following globalmore » brain ischemia. Furthermore, the location-specific loss of taurine from CA1 but not CA3 neurons following ischemia reveals osmotic stress may be a key factor in delayed neurodegeneration after a cerebral ischemic insult and highlights the significant potential of chemically specific XFI to study the role of taurine in brain disease.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Curin Univ., Pert, WA (Australia)
  2. Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)
Publication Date:
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Analytical Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 88; Journal Issue: 22; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-2700
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
OSTI Identifier:
1335974

Hackett, Mark J., Paterson, Phyllis G., Pickering, Ingrid J., and George, Graham N.. Imaging Taurine in the Central Nervous System Using Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging at the Sulfur K-Edge. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.6b02298.
Hackett, Mark J., Paterson, Phyllis G., Pickering, Ingrid J., & George, Graham N.. Imaging Taurine in the Central Nervous System Using Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging at the Sulfur K-Edge. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.6b02298.
Hackett, Mark J., Paterson, Phyllis G., Pickering, Ingrid J., and George, Graham N.. 2016. "Imaging Taurine in the Central Nervous System Using Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging at the Sulfur K-Edge". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.6b02298. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1335974.
@article{osti_1335974,
title = {Imaging Taurine in the Central Nervous System Using Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging at the Sulfur K-Edge},
author = {Hackett, Mark J. and Paterson, Phyllis G. and Pickering, Ingrid J. and George, Graham N.},
abstractNote = {A method to image taurine distributions within the central nervous system and other organs has long been sought. Since taurine is small and mobile, it cannot be chemically “tagged” and imaged using conventional immuno-histochemistry methods. Combining numerous indirect measurements, taurine is known to play critical roles in brain function during health and disease and is proposed to act as a neuro-osmolyte, neuro-modulator, and possibly a neuro-transmitter. Elucidation of taurine’s neurochemical roles and importance would be substantially enhanced by a direct method to visualize alterations, due to physiological and pathological events in the brain, in the local concentration of taurine at or near cellular spatial resolution in vivo or in situ in tissue sections. We thus have developed chemically specific X-ray fluorescence imaging (XFI) at the sulfur K-edge to image the sulfonate group in taurine in situ in ex vivo tissue sections. To our knowledge, this represents the first undistorted imaging of taurine distribution in brain at 20 μm resolution. We report quantitative technique validation by imaging taurine in the cerebellum and hippocampus regions of the rat brain. Further, we apply the technique to image taurine loss from the vulnerable CA1 (cornus ammonis 1) sector of the rat hippocampus following global brain ischemia. Furthermore, the location-specific loss of taurine from CA1 but not CA3 neurons following ischemia reveals osmotic stress may be a key factor in delayed neurodegeneration after a cerebral ischemic insult and highlights the significant potential of chemically specific XFI to study the role of taurine in brain disease.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.analchem.6b02298},
journal = {Analytical Chemistry},
number = 22,
volume = 88,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {10}
}