DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Importance of the Bulk Viscosity of QCD in Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

Abstract

In this study, we investigate the consequences of a nonzero bulk viscosity coefficient on the transverse momentum spectra, azimuthal momentum anisotropy, and multiplicity of charged hadrons produced in heavy ion collisions at LHC energies. The agreement between a realistic 3D hybrid simulation and the experimentally measured data considerably improves with the addition of a bulk viscosity coefficient for strongly interacting matter. Lastly, this paves the way for an eventual quantitative determination of several QCD transport coefficients from the experimental heavy ion and hadron-nucleus collision programs.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1]
  1. McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept of Physics
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP)
OSTI Identifier:
1335418
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1233955
Report Number(s):
BNL-112018-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007; R&D Project: 08870; KB0301020
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 115; Journal Issue: 13; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Ryu, S., Paquet, J. -F., Shen, C., Denicol, G. S., Schenke, B., Jeon, S., and Gale, C. Importance of the Bulk Viscosity of QCD in Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.132301.
Ryu, S., Paquet, J. -F., Shen, C., Denicol, G. S., Schenke, B., Jeon, S., & Gale, C. Importance of the Bulk Viscosity of QCD in Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions. United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.132301
Ryu, S., Paquet, J. -F., Shen, C., Denicol, G. S., Schenke, B., Jeon, S., and Gale, C. Tue . "Importance of the Bulk Viscosity of QCD in Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions". United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.132301. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1335418.
@article{osti_1335418,
title = {Importance of the Bulk Viscosity of QCD in Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions},
author = {Ryu, S. and Paquet, J. -F. and Shen, C. and Denicol, G. S. and Schenke, B. and Jeon, S. and Gale, C.},
abstractNote = {In this study, we investigate the consequences of a nonzero bulk viscosity coefficient on the transverse momentum spectra, azimuthal momentum anisotropy, and multiplicity of charged hadrons produced in heavy ion collisions at LHC energies. The agreement between a realistic 3D hybrid simulation and the experimentally measured data considerably improves with the addition of a bulk viscosity coefficient for strongly interacting matter. Lastly, this paves the way for an eventual quantitative determination of several QCD transport coefficients from the experimental heavy ion and hadron-nucleus collision programs.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.132301},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 13,
volume = 115,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 235 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Hydrodynamic Modeling of Heavy-Ion Collisions
journal, April 2013

  • Gale, Charles; Jeon, Sangyong; Schenke, BjÖRn
  • International Journal of Modern Physics A, Vol. 28, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1142/S0217751X13400113

New forms of QCD matter discovered at RHIC
journal, March 2005


Quark–gluon plasma and color glass condensate at RHIC? The perspective from the BRAHMS experiment
journal, August 2005


The PHOBOS perspective on discoveries at RHIC
journal, August 2005


Viscosity Information from Relativistic Nuclear Collisions: How Perfect is the Fluid Observed at RHIC?
journal, October 2007


QGP viscosity at RHIC and the LHC – a 2012 status report
journal, May 2013


Collision-geometry fluctuations and triangular flow in heavy-ion collisions
journal, May 2010


Mapping the hydrodynamic response to the initial geometry in heavy-ion collisions
journal, February 2012


Event-by-event distributions of azimuthal asymmetries in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions
journal, May 2013


Event-by-event gluon multiplicity, energy density, and eccentricities in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions
journal, September 2012


Fluctuating Glasma Initial Conditions and Flow in Heavy Ion Collisions
journal, June 2012


Modification of the saturation model: Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution
journal, June 2002


Impact parameter dipole saturation model
journal, December 2003


Gluon production from non-Abelian Weizsäcker-Williams fields in nucleus-nucleus collisions
journal, December 1995


Initial Energy Density of Gluons Produced in Very-High-Energy Nuclear Collisions
journal, May 2000


Initial Gluon Multiplicity in Heavy-Ion Collisions
journal, February 2001


Event-by-Event Anisotropic Flow in Heavy-ion Collisions from Combined Yang-Mills and Viscous Fluid Dynamics
journal, January 2013


Bulk viscosity and cavitation in boost-invariant hydrodynamic expansion
journal, March 2010

  • Rajagopal, Krishna; Tripuraneni, Nilesh
  • Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2010, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/JHEP03(2010)018

Bulk and shear viscosities of matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
journal, March 2010


Flow and interferometry in (3 + 1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics
journal, March 2012


Particle spectra in Pb-Pb collisions at s NN = 2 . 76 TeV
journal, June 2012


Effects of bulk viscosity at freezeout
journal, November 2009


Effect of bulk viscosity on elliptic flow near the QCD phase transition
journal, December 2009


Interplay of shear and bulk viscosity in generating flow in heavy-ion collisions
journal, February 2010


Bulk viscosity, particle spectra, and flow in heavy-ion collisions
journal, April 2012


Bulk viscosity effects in event-by-event relativistic hydrodynamics
journal, October 2013

  • Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Denicol, Gabriel S.; Noronha, Jorge
  • Physical Review C, Vol. 88, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.88.044916

Bulk viscosity-driven suppression of shear viscosity effects on the flow harmonics at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
journal, September 2014

  • Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Noronha, Jorge; Grassi, Frédérique
  • Physical Review C, Vol. 90, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.90.034907

Microscopic models for ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions
journal, January 1998


Relativistic hadron-hadron collisions in the ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics model
journal, September 1999

  • Bleicher, M.; Zabrodin, E.; Spieles, C.
  • Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vol. 25, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/25/9/308

Dissipative Relativistic Fluid Dynamics: A New Way to Derive the Equations of Motion from Kinetic Theory
journal, October 2010


Transient relativistic thermodynamics and kinetic theory
journal, April 1979


QCD equation of state and hadron resonance gas
journal, June 2010


Derivation of transient relativistic fluid dynamics from the Boltzmann equation
journal, June 2012


Transport coefficients of bulk viscous pressure in the 14-moment approximation
journal, August 2014


(3+1)D hydrodynamic simulation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions
journal, July 2010


Elliptic and Triangular Flow in Event-by-Event D = 3 + 1 Viscous Hydrodynamics
journal, January 2011


Higher flow harmonics from ( 3 + 1 ) D event-by-event viscous hydrodynamics
journal, February 2012


New High-Resolution Central Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws and Convection–Diffusion Equations
journal, May 2000

  • Kurganov, Alexander; Tadmor, Eitan
  • Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 160, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1006/jcph.2000.6459

Application of the Kurganov–Levy semi-discrete numerical scheme to hyperbolic problems with nonlinear source terms
journal, April 2004


Solutions of conformal Israel-Stewart relativistic viscous fluid dynamics
journal, January 2015


Shear-bulk coupling in nonconformal hydrodynamics
journal, October 2014

  • Denicol, Gabriel S.; Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw
  • Physical Review C, Vol. 90, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.90.044905

Studying the validity of relativistic hydrodynamics with a new exact solution of the Boltzmann equation
journal, December 2014


New Exact Solution of the Relativistic Boltzmann Equation and its Hydrodynamic Limit
journal, November 2014


Universal properties of bulk viscosity near the QCD phase transition
journal, May 2008


Transport Coefficients of Hadronic Matter Near T c
journal, October 2009


Dynamics of hot bulk QCD matter: From the quark-gluon plasma to hadronic freeze-out
journal, May 2000


Single-particle distribution in the hydrodynamic and statistical thermodynamic models of multiparticle production
journal, July 1974


Extracting the bulk viscosity of the quark–gluon plasma
journal, November 2014


Effect of shear viscosity on spectra, elliptic flow, and Hanbury Brown–Twiss radii
journal, September 2003


Flow analysis with cumulants: Direct calculations
journal, April 2011


Higher Harmonic Anisotropic Flow Measurements of Charged Particles in Pb-Pb Collisions at s N N = 2.76 TeV
journal, July 2011


Centrality dependence of π , K , and p production in Pb-Pb collisions at s N N = 2.76 TeV
journal, October 2013


Viscous QCD matter in a hybrid hydrodynamic+Boltzmann approach
journal, February 2011


Spectra and elliptic flow for identified hadrons in 2.76 A TeV Pb + Pb collisions
journal, March 2014


Measurement of the elliptic anisotropy of charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at s N N = 2.76 TeV
journal, January 2013


Measurement of higher-order harmonic azimuthal anisotropy in PbPb collisions at s NN = 2.76 TeV
journal, April 2014


Initial Gluon Multiplicity in Heavy-Ion Collisions
text, January 2001


Effects of Bulk Viscosity at Freezeout
text, January 2009


Flow analysis with cumulants: direct calculations
text, January 2010


Viscous QCD matter in a hybrid hydrodynamic+Boltzmann approach
text, January 2010


Bulk viscosity, particle spectra and flow in heavy-ion collisions
text, January 2011


Mapping the hydrodynamic response to the initial geometry in heavy-ion collisions
text, January 2011


Derivation of transient relativistic fluid dynamics from the Boltzmann equation
text, January 2012


Fluctuating Glasma initial conditions and flow in heavy ion collisions
text, January 2012


Hydrodynamic Modeling of Heavy-Ion Collisions
text, January 2013


Bulk Viscosity Effects in Event-by-Event Relativistic Hydrodynamics
text, January 2013


Shear-bulk coupling in nonconformal hydrodynamics
text, January 2014


Studying the validity of relativistic hydrodynamics with a new exact solution of the Boltzmann equation
text, January 2014


The initial gluon multiplicity in heavy ion collisions
text, January 2000


An Impact Parameter Dipole Saturation Model
text, January 2003


New Forms of QCD Matter Discovered at RHIC
text, January 2004


Works referencing / citing this record:

Relativistic hydrodynamic attractors with broken symmetries: non-conformal and non-homogeneous
journal, December 2017


The energy-momentum tensor for a dissipative fluid in general relativity
journal, August 2016

  • Pimentel, Oscar M.; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; González, Guillermo A.
  • General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 48, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10714-016-2121-7

Collective flow and hydrodynamics in large and small systems at the LHC
journal, June 2017

  • Song, Huichao; Zhou, You; Gajdošová, Katarína
  • Nuclear Science and Techniques, Vol. 28, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1007/s41365-017-0245-4

Relativistic Fluid Dynamics in and out of Equilibrium
book, January 2019


Different realizations of Cooper–Frye sampling with conservation laws
journal, November 2017

  • Schwarz, C.; Oliinychenko, D.; Pang, L-G
  • Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vol. 45, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6471/aa90eb

Optical properties of an anisotropic hot QCD medium
journal, February 2020

  • Jamal, M. Yousuf; Mitra, Sukanya; Chandra, Vinod
  • Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vol. 47, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6471/ab3cf2

Bulk quantities in nuclear collisions from running-coupling k T factorization and hybrid simulations
journal, July 2019


New approach to initializing hydrodynamic fields and mini-jet propagation in quark-gluon fluids
journal, May 2017


Transport coefficients of a hot QCD medium and their relative significance in heavy-ion collisions
journal, November 2017


Imperfect fluid description of modified gravities
journal, October 2018


Benchmarking a nonequilibrium approach to photon emission in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
journal, June 2019


Relativistic Hydrodynamics in Heavy-Ion Collisions: General Aspects and Recent Developments
journal, January 2016

  • Jaiswal, Amaresh; Roy, Victor
  • Advances in High Energy Physics, Vol. 2016
  • DOI: 10.1155/2016/9623034

In-medium viscous coefficients of a hot hadronic gas mixture
journal, October 2016


Charged-particle angular correlations in XeXe collisions at √sNN=5.44 TeV
text, January 2019


Measurement of the azimuthal anisotropy of charged particles produced in s NN = 5.02 TeV Pb+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector
text, January 2018

  • Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.
  • Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
  • DOI: 10.17863/cam.46732

Bridging Soft-Hard Transport Properties of Quark-Gluon Plasmas with CUJET3.0
text, January 2015


Sensitivity of flow harmonics to sub-nucleon scale fluctuations in heavy ion collisions
text, January 2015


The production of photons in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
text, January 2015


Momentum transport in strongly coupled anisotropic plasmas in the presence of strong magnetic fields
text, January 2016


Phenomenological Consequences of Enhanced Bulk Viscosity Near the QCD Critical Point
text, January 2016


Collectivity and electromagnetic radiation in small systems
text, January 2016


New approach to initializing hydrodynamic fields and mini-jet propagation in quark-gluon fluids
text, January 2017


In-medium viscous coefficients of a hot hadronic gas mixture
text, January 2017


Optical properties of an anisotropic hot QCD medium
preprint, January 2017


Causality and existence of solutions of relativistic viscous fluid dynamics with gravity
text, January 2017


Homogeneous isotropization and equilibration of a strongly coupled plasma with a critical point
text, January 2017


Diffusion of conserved charges in relativistic heavy ion collisions
text, January 2017


Benchmarking a Non-Equilibrium Approach to Photon Emission in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions
text, January 2019