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Title: Linear models to perform treaty verification tasks for enhanced information security

Linear mathematical models were applied to binary-discrimination tasks relevant to arms control verification measurements in which a host party wishes to convince a monitoring party that an item is or is not treaty accountable. These models process data in list-mode format and can compensate for the presence of variability in the source, such as uncertain object orientation and location. The Hotelling observer applies an optimal set of weights to binned detector data, yielding a test statistic that is thresholded to make a decision. The channelized Hotelling observer applies a channelizing matrix to the vectorized data, resulting in a lower dimensional vector available to the monitor to make decisions. We demonstrate how incorporating additional terms in this channelizing-matrix optimization offers benefits for treaty verification. We present two methods to increase shared information and trust between the host and monitor. The first method penalizes individual channel performance in order to maximize the information available to the monitor while maintaining optimal performance. Second, we present a method that penalizes predefined sensitive information while maintaining the capability to discriminate between binary choices. Data used in this study was generated using Monte Carlo simulations for fission neutrons, accomplished with the GEANT4 toolkit. Custom models formore » plutonium inspection objects were measured in simulation by a radiation imaging system. Model performance was evaluated and presented using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [3]
  1. The Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. The Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  3. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
SAND-2016-11999J
Journal ID: ISSN 0168-9002; PII: S0168900216311366; TRN: US1601877
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 844; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0168-9002
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING; arms control treaty verification; information barrier; discrimination algorithms; neutron imaging
OSTI Identifier:
1333881

MacGahan, Christopher J., Kupinski, Matthew A., Brubaker, Erik M., Hilton, Nathan R., and Marleau, Peter A.. Linear models to perform treaty verification tasks for enhanced information security. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2016.11.010.
MacGahan, Christopher J., Kupinski, Matthew A., Brubaker, Erik M., Hilton, Nathan R., & Marleau, Peter A.. Linear models to perform treaty verification tasks for enhanced information security. United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2016.11.010.
MacGahan, Christopher J., Kupinski, Matthew A., Brubaker, Erik M., Hilton, Nathan R., and Marleau, Peter A.. 2016. "Linear models to perform treaty verification tasks for enhanced information security". United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2016.11.010. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1333881.
@article{osti_1333881,
title = {Linear models to perform treaty verification tasks for enhanced information security},
author = {MacGahan, Christopher J. and Kupinski, Matthew A. and Brubaker, Erik M. and Hilton, Nathan R. and Marleau, Peter A.},
abstractNote = {Linear mathematical models were applied to binary-discrimination tasks relevant to arms control verification measurements in which a host party wishes to convince a monitoring party that an item is or is not treaty accountable. These models process data in list-mode format and can compensate for the presence of variability in the source, such as uncertain object orientation and location. The Hotelling observer applies an optimal set of weights to binned detector data, yielding a test statistic that is thresholded to make a decision. The channelized Hotelling observer applies a channelizing matrix to the vectorized data, resulting in a lower dimensional vector available to the monitor to make decisions. We demonstrate how incorporating additional terms in this channelizing-matrix optimization offers benefits for treaty verification. We present two methods to increase shared information and trust between the host and monitor. The first method penalizes individual channel performance in order to maximize the information available to the monitor while maintaining optimal performance. Second, we present a method that penalizes predefined sensitive information while maintaining the capability to discriminate between binary choices. Data used in this study was generated using Monte Carlo simulations for fission neutrons, accomplished with the GEANT4 toolkit. Custom models for plutonium inspection objects were measured in simulation by a radiation imaging system. Model performance was evaluated and presented using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.},
doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2016.11.010},
journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment},
number = C,
volume = 844,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {11}
}