skip to main content

DOE PAGESDOE PAGES

Title: High thermoelectricpower factor in graphene/hBN devices

Fast and controllable cooling at nanoscales requires a combination of highly efficient passive cooling and active cooling. Although passive cooling in graphene-based devices is quite effective due to graphene’s extraordinary heat conduction, active cooling has not been considered feasible due to graphene’s low thermoelectric power factor. Here in this paper, we show that the thermoelectric performance of graphene can be significantly improved by using hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) substrates instead of SiO 2. We find the room temperature efficiency of active cooling in the device, as gauged by the power factor times temperature, reaches values as high as 10.35 W·m -1·K -1, corresponding to more than doubling the highest reported room temperature bulk power factors, 5 W·m-1·K-1, in YbAl 3, and quadrupling the best 2D power factor, 2.5W·m -1·K -1, in MoS 2. We further show that the Seebeck coefficient provides a direct measure of substrate-induced random potential fluctuations and that their significant reduction for hBN substrates enables fast gate-controlled switching of the Seebeck coefficient polarity for applications in integrated active cooling devices.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ; ORCiD logo [4] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6]
  1. Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, and Inst. of Advanced Materials, Devices, and Nanotechnology
  2. Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
  3. Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  4. National Inst. for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba (Japan). Advanced Materials Lab.
  5. Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, and Inst. of Advanced Materials, Devices, and Nanotechnology
  6. Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, and Inst. of Advanced Materials, Devices, and Nanotechnology
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
FG02-99ER45742; FA9550-14-1-0316; DMR 1207108; FG02-99ER45742.
Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 113; Journal Issue: 50; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
Research Org:
Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE; National Science Foundation (NSF)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; graphene; Seebeck coefficient; thermoelectric power factor; electron–hole puddles; screened Coulomb scattering
OSTI Identifier:
1333424
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1474326

Duan, Junxi, Wang, Xiaoming, Lai, Xinyuan, Li, Guohong, Watanabe, Kenji, Taniguchi, Takashi, Zebarjadi, Mona, and Andrei, Eva Y. High thermoelectricpower factor in graphene/hBN devices. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1615913113.
Duan, Junxi, Wang, Xiaoming, Lai, Xinyuan, Li, Guohong, Watanabe, Kenji, Taniguchi, Takashi, Zebarjadi, Mona, & Andrei, Eva Y. High thermoelectricpower factor in graphene/hBN devices. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1615913113.
Duan, Junxi, Wang, Xiaoming, Lai, Xinyuan, Li, Guohong, Watanabe, Kenji, Taniguchi, Takashi, Zebarjadi, Mona, and Andrei, Eva Y. 2016. "High thermoelectricpower factor in graphene/hBN devices". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1615913113.
@article{osti_1333424,
title = {High thermoelectricpower factor in graphene/hBN devices},
author = {Duan, Junxi and Wang, Xiaoming and Lai, Xinyuan and Li, Guohong and Watanabe, Kenji and Taniguchi, Takashi and Zebarjadi, Mona and Andrei, Eva Y.},
abstractNote = {Fast and controllable cooling at nanoscales requires a combination of highly efficient passive cooling and active cooling. Although passive cooling in graphene-based devices is quite effective due to graphene’s extraordinary heat conduction, active cooling has not been considered feasible due to graphene’s low thermoelectric power factor. Here in this paper, we show that the thermoelectric performance of graphene can be significantly improved by using hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) substrates instead of SiO2. We find the room temperature efficiency of active cooling in the device, as gauged by the power factor times temperature, reaches values as high as 10.35 W·m-1·K-1, corresponding to more than doubling the highest reported room temperature bulk power factors, 5 W·m-1·K-1, in YbAl3, and quadrupling the best 2D power factor, 2.5W·m-1·K-1, in MoS2. We further show that the Seebeck coefficient provides a direct measure of substrate-induced random potential fluctuations and that their significant reduction for hBN substrates enables fast gate-controlled switching of the Seebeck coefficient polarity for applications in integrated active cooling devices.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1615913113},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 50,
volume = 113,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {11}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene
journal, November 2005
  • Zhang, Yuanbo; Tan, Yan-Wen; Stormer, Horst L.
  • Nature, Vol. 438, Issue 7065, p. 201-204
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature04235

Carrier Transport in Two-Dimensional Graphene Layers
journal, May 2007

Enhancing the Thermoelectric Power Factor by Using Invisible Dopants
journal, January 2013
  • Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 25, Issue 11, p. 1577-1582
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204802

Intrinsic and extrinsic performance limits of graphene devices on SiO2
journal, March 2008
  • Chen, Jian-Hao; Jang, Chaun; Xiao, Shudong
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 3, Issue 4, p. 206-209
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2008.58

Complex thermoelectric materials
journal, February 2008
  • Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Toberer, Eric S.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 7, Issue 2, p. 105-114
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2090

Superior Thermal Conductivity of Single-Layer Graphene
journal, March 2008
  • Balandin, Alexander A.; Ghosh, Suchismita; Bao, Wenzhong
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 8, Issue 3, p. 902-907
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl0731872

Thermal properties of graphene and nanostructured carbon materials
journal, August 2011
  • Balandin, Alexander A.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 10, Issue 8, p. 569-581
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3064

Hunting for Monolayer Boron Nitride: Optical and Raman Signatures
journal, January 2011
  • Gorbachev, Roman V.; Riaz, Ibtsam; Nair, Rahul R.
  • Small, Vol. 7, Issue 4, p. 465-468
  • DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001628

The rise of graphene
journal, March 2007
  • Geim, A. K.; Novoselov, K. S.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 3, p. 183-191
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1849

Atomic Structure of Graphene on SiO2
journal, June 2007
  • Ishigami, Masa; Chen, J. H.; Cullen, W. G.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 7, Issue 6, p. 1643-1648
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl070613a

Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics
journal, August 2010
  • Dean, C. R.; Young, A. F.; Meric, I.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 5, Issue 10, p. 722-726
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2010.172

Single-layer MoS2 transistors
journal, January 2011
  • Radisavljevic, B.; Radenovic, A.; Brivio, J.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 6, Issue 3, p. 147-150
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2010.279

Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene
journal, November 2005
  • Novoselov, K. S.; Geim, A. K.; Morozov, S. V.
  • Nature, Vol. 438, Issue 7065, p. 197-200
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature04233