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Title: Testing hadronic interactions at ultrahigh energies with air showers measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

Abstract

Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray air showers probe particle physics at energies beyond the reach of accelerators. Here we introduce a new method to test hadronic interaction models without relying on the absolute energy calibration, and apply it to events with primary energy 6–16 EeV (E CM = 110–170 TeV), whose longitudinal development and lateral distribution were simultaneously measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. As a result, the average hadronic shower is 1.33±0.16 (1.61±0.21) times larger than predicted using the leading LHC-tuned models EPOS-LHC (QGSJetII-04), with a corresponding excess of muons.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
Pierre Auger Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1333138
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1330487
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-16-504-AD-AE-CD-TD; arXiv:1610.08509
Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007; PRLTAO; 1494752
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; FR02-04ER41300; FG02-99ER41107; SC0011689
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 117; Journal Issue: 19; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Aab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Ahn, E. J., Al Samarai, I., Albuquerque, I. F. M., Allekotte, I., Allen, J. D., Allison, P., Almela, A., Alvarez Castillo, J., Alvarez-Muñiz, J., Ambrosio, M., Anastasi, G. A., Anchordoqui, L., Andrada, B., Andringa, S., Aramo, C., Arqueros, F., Arsene, N., Asorey, H., Assis, P., Aublin, J., Avila, G., Badescu, A. M., Baus, C., Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. H., Bellido, J. A., Berat, C., Bertaina, M. E., Bertou, X., Biermann, P. L., Billoir, P., Biteau, J., Blaess, S. G., Blanco, A., Blazek, J., Bleve, C., Blümer, H., Boháčová, M., Boncioli, D., Bonifazi, C., Borodai, N., Botti, A. M., Brack, J., Brancus, I., Bretz, T., Bridgeman, A., Briechle, F. L., Buchholz, P., Bueno, A., Buitink, S., Buscemi, M., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Caccianiga, B., Caccianiga, L., Cancio, A., Canfora, F., Caramete, L., Caruso, R., Castellina, A., Cataldi, G., Cazon, L., Cester, R., Chavez, A. G., Chiavassa, A., Chinellato, J. A., Chirinos Diaz, J. C., Chudoba, J., Clay, R. W., Colalillo, R., Coleman, A., Collica, L., Coluccia, M. R., Conceição, R., Contreras, F., Cooper, M. J., Coutu, S., Covault, C. E., Cronin, J., Dallier, R., D’Amico, S., Daniel, B., Dasso, S., Daumiller, K., Dawson, B. R., de Almeida, R. M., de Jong, S. J., De Mauro, G., de Mello Neto, J. R. T., De Mitri, I., de Oliveira, J., de Souza, V., Debatin, J., del Peral, L., Deligny, O., Dhital, N., Di Giulio, C., Di Matteo, A., Díaz Castro, M. L., Diogo, F., Dobrigkeit, C., D’Olivo, J. C., Dorofeev, A., dos Anjos, R. C., Dova, M. T., Dundovic, A., Ebr, J., Engel, R., Erdmann, M., Erfani, M., Escobar, C. O., Espadanal, J., Etchegoyen, A., Falcke, H., Fang, K., Farrar, G. R., Fauth, A. C., Fazzini, N., Ferguson, A. P., Fick, B., Figueira, J. M., Filevich, A., Filipčič, A., Fratu, O., Freire, M. M., Fujii, T., Fuster, A., Gallo, F., García, B., Garcia-Pinto, D., Gate, F., Gemmeke, H., Gherghel-Lascu, A., Ghia, P. L., Giaccari, U., Giammarchi, M., Giller, M., Głas, D., Glaser, C., Glass, H., Golup, G., Gómez Berisso, M., Gómez Vitale, P. F., González, N., Gookin, B., Gordon, J., Gorgi, A., Gorham, P., Gouffon, P., Griffith, N., Grillo, A. F., Grubb, T. D., Guarino, F., Guedes, G. P., Hampel, M. R., Hansen, P., Harari, D., Harrison, T. A., Harton, J. L., Hasankiadeh, Q., Haungs, A., Hebbeker, T., Heck, D., Heimann, P., Herve, A. E., Hill, G. C., Hojvat, C., Hollon, N., Holt, E., Homola, P., Hörandel, J. R., Horvath, P., Hrabovský, M., Huege, T., Hulsman, J., Insolia, A., Isar, P. G., Jandt, I., Jansen, S., Jarne, C., Johnsen, J. A., Josebachuili, M., Kääpä, A., Kambeitz, O., Kampert, K. H., Kasper, P., Katkov, I., Keilhauer, B., Kemp, E., Kieckhafer, R. M., Klages, H. O., Kleifges, M., Kleinfeller, J., Krause, R., Krohm, N., Kuempel, D., Kukec Mezek, G., Kunka, N., Kuotb Awad, A., LaHurd, D., Latronico, L., Lauscher, M., Lautridou, P., Lebrun, P., Legumina, R., Leigui de Oliveira, M. A., Letessier-Selvon, A., Lhenry-Yvon, I., Link, K., Lopes, L., López, R., López Casado, A., Lucero, A., Malacari, M., Mallamaci, M., Mandat, D., Mantsch, P., Mariazzi, A. G., Marin, V., Mariş, I. C., Marsella, G., Martello, D., Martinez, H., Martínez Bravo, O., Masías Meza, J. J., Mathes, H. J., Mathys, S., Matthews, J., Matthews, J. A. J., Matthiae, G., Maurizio, D., Mayotte, E., Mazur, P. O., Medina, C., Medina-Tanco, G., Mello, V. B. B., Melo, D., Menshikov, A., Messina, S., Micheletti, M. I., Middendorf, L., Minaya, I. A., Miramonti, L., Mitrica, B., Molina-Bueno, L., Mollerach, S., Montanet, F., Morello, C., Mostafá, M., Moura, C. A., Müller, G., Muller, M. A., Müller, S., Naranjo, I., Navas, S., Necesal, P., Nellen, L., Nelles, A., Neuser, J., Nguyen, P. H., Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M., Niechciol, M., Niemietz, L., Niggemann, T., Nitz, D., Nosek, D., Novotny, V., Nožka, H., Núñez, L. A., Ochilo, L., Oikonomou, F., Olinto, A., Pakk Selmi-Dei, D., Palatka, M., Pallotta, J., Papenbreer, P., Parente, G., Parra, A., Paul, T., Pech, M., Pedreira, F., Pękala, J., Pelayo, R., Peña-Rodriguez, J., Pepe, I. M., Pereira, L. A. S., Perrone, L., Petermann, E., Peters, C., Petrera, S., Phuntsok, J., Piegaia, R., Pierog, T., Pieroni, P., Pimenta, M., Pirronello, V., Platino, M., Plum, M., Porowski, C., Prado, R. R., Privitera, P., Prouza, M., Quel, E. J., Querchfeld, S., Quinn, S., Rautenberg, J., Ravel, O., Ravignani, D., Revenu, B., Ridky, J., Risse, M., Ristori, P., Rizi, V., Rodrigues de Carvalho, W., Rodriguez Rojo, J., Rodríguez-Frías, M. D., Rogozin, D., Rosado, J., Roth, M., Roulet, E., Rovero, A. C., Saffi, S. J., Saftoiu, A., Salazar, H., Saleh, A., Salesa Greus, F., Salina, G., Sanabria Gomez, J. D., Sánchez, F., Sanchez-Lucas, P., Santos, E. M., Santos, E., Sarazin, F., Sarkar, B., Sarmento, R., Sarmiento-Cano, C., Sato, R., Scarso, C., Schauer, M., Scherini, V., Schieler, H., Schmidt, D., Scholten, O., Schoorlemmer, H., Schovánek, P., Schröder, F. G., Schulz, A., Schulz, J., Schumacher, J., Sciutto, S. J., Segreto, A., Settimo, M., Shadkam, A., Shellard, R. C., Sigl, G., Sima, O., Śmiałkowski, A., Šmída, R., Snow, G. R., Sommers, P., Sonntag, S., Sorokin, J., Squartini, R., Stanca, D., Stanič, S., Stapleton, J., Stasielak, J., Strafella, F., Stutz, A., Suarez, F., Suarez Durán, M., Sudholz, T., Suomijärvi, T., Supanitsky, A. D., Sutherland, M. S., Swain, J., Szadkowski, Z., Taborda, O. A., Tapia, A., Tepe, A., Theodoro, V. M., Timmermans, C., Todero Peixoto, C. J., Tomankova, L., Tomé, B., Tonachini, A., Torralba Elipe, G., Torres Machado, D., Travnicek, P., Trini, M., Ulrich, R., Unger, M., Urban, M., Valbuena-Delgado, A., Valdés Galicia, J. F., Valiño, I., Valore, L., van Aar, G., van Bodegom, P., van den Berg, A. M., van Vliet, A., Varela, E., Vargas Cárdenas, B., Varner, G., Vázquez, J. R., Vázquez, R. A., Veberič, D., Verzi, V., Vicha, J., Videla, M., Villaseñor, L., Vorobiov, S., Wahlberg, H., Wainberg, O., Walz, D., Watson, A. A., Weber, M., Weindl, A., Wiencke, L., Wilczyński, H., Winchen, T., Wittkowski, D., Wundheiler, B., Wykes, S., Yang, L., Yapici, T., Yelos, D., Zas, E., Zavrtanik, D., Zavrtanik, M., Zepeda, A., Zimmermann, B., Ziolkowski, M., Zong, Z., and Zuccarello, F. Testing hadronic interactions at ultrahigh energies with air showers measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.192001.
Aab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Ahn, E. J., Al Samarai, I., Albuquerque, I. F. M., Allekotte, I., Allen, J. D., Allison, P., Almela, A., Alvarez Castillo, J., Alvarez-Muñiz, J., Ambrosio, M., Anastasi, G. A., Anchordoqui, L., Andrada, B., Andringa, S., Aramo, C., Arqueros, F., Arsene, N., Asorey, H., Assis, P., Aublin, J., Avila, G., Badescu, A. M., Baus, C., Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. H., Bellido, J. A., Berat, C., Bertaina, M. E., Bertou, X., Biermann, P. L., Billoir, P., Biteau, J., Blaess, S. G., Blanco, A., Blazek, J., Bleve, C., Blümer, H., Boháčová, M., Boncioli, D., Bonifazi, C., Borodai, N., Botti, A. M., Brack, J., Brancus, I., Bretz, T., Bridgeman, A., Briechle, F. L., Buchholz, P., Bueno, A., Buitink, S., Buscemi, M., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Caccianiga, B., Caccianiga, L., Cancio, A., Canfora, F., Caramete, L., Caruso, R., Castellina, A., Cataldi, G., Cazon, L., Cester, R., Chavez, A. G., Chiavassa, A., Chinellato, J. A., Chirinos Diaz, J. C., Chudoba, J., Clay, R. W., Colalillo, R., Coleman, A., Collica, L., Coluccia, M. R., Conceição, R., Contreras, F., Cooper, M. J., Coutu, S., Covault, C. E., Cronin, J., Dallier, R., D’Amico, S., Daniel, B., Dasso, S., Daumiller, K., Dawson, B. R., de Almeida, R. M., de Jong, S. J., De Mauro, G., de Mello Neto, J. R. T., De Mitri, I., de Oliveira, J., de Souza, V., Debatin, J., del Peral, L., Deligny, O., Dhital, N., Di Giulio, C., Di Matteo, A., Díaz Castro, M. L., Diogo, F., Dobrigkeit, C., D’Olivo, J. C., Dorofeev, A., dos Anjos, R. C., Dova, M. T., Dundovic, A., Ebr, J., Engel, R., Erdmann, M., Erfani, M., Escobar, C. O., Espadanal, J., Etchegoyen, A., Falcke, H., Fang, K., Farrar, G. R., Fauth, A. C., Fazzini, N., Ferguson, A. P., Fick, B., Figueira, J. M., Filevich, A., Filipčič, A., Fratu, O., Freire, M. M., Fujii, T., Fuster, A., Gallo, F., García, B., Garcia-Pinto, D., Gate, F., Gemmeke, H., Gherghel-Lascu, A., Ghia, P. L., Giaccari, U., Giammarchi, M., Giller, M., Głas, D., Glaser, C., Glass, H., Golup, G., Gómez Berisso, M., Gómez Vitale, P. F., González, N., Gookin, B., Gordon, J., Gorgi, A., Gorham, P., Gouffon, P., Griffith, N., Grillo, A. F., Grubb, T. D., Guarino, F., Guedes, G. P., Hampel, M. R., Hansen, P., Harari, D., Harrison, T. A., Harton, J. L., Hasankiadeh, Q., Haungs, A., Hebbeker, T., Heck, D., Heimann, P., Herve, A. E., Hill, G. C., Hojvat, C., Hollon, N., Holt, E., Homola, P., Hörandel, J. R., Horvath, P., Hrabovský, M., Huege, T., Hulsman, J., Insolia, A., Isar, P. G., Jandt, I., Jansen, S., Jarne, C., Johnsen, J. A., Josebachuili, M., Kääpä, A., Kambeitz, O., Kampert, K. H., Kasper, P., Katkov, I., Keilhauer, B., Kemp, E., Kieckhafer, R. M., Klages, H. O., Kleifges, M., Kleinfeller, J., Krause, R., Krohm, N., Kuempel, D., Kukec Mezek, G., Kunka, N., Kuotb Awad, A., LaHurd, D., Latronico, L., Lauscher, M., Lautridou, P., Lebrun, P., Legumina, R., Leigui de Oliveira, M. A., Letessier-Selvon, A., Lhenry-Yvon, I., Link, K., Lopes, L., López, R., López Casado, A., Lucero, A., Malacari, M., Mallamaci, M., Mandat, D., Mantsch, P., Mariazzi, A. G., Marin, V., Mariş, I. C., Marsella, G., Martello, D., Martinez, H., Martínez Bravo, O., Masías Meza, J. J., Mathes, H. J., Mathys, S., Matthews, J., Matthews, J. A. J., Matthiae, G., Maurizio, D., Mayotte, E., Mazur, P. O., Medina, C., Medina-Tanco, G., Mello, V. B. B., Melo, D., Menshikov, A., Messina, S., Micheletti, M. I., Middendorf, L., Minaya, I. A., Miramonti, L., Mitrica, B., Molina-Bueno, L., Mollerach, S., Montanet, F., Morello, C., Mostafá, M., Moura, C. A., Müller, G., Muller, M. A., Müller, S., Naranjo, I., Navas, S., Necesal, P., Nellen, L., Nelles, A., Neuser, J., Nguyen, P. H., Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M., Niechciol, M., Niemietz, L., Niggemann, T., Nitz, D., Nosek, D., Novotny, V., Nožka, H., Núñez, L. A., Ochilo, L., Oikonomou, F., Olinto, A., Pakk Selmi-Dei, D., Palatka, M., Pallotta, J., Papenbreer, P., Parente, G., Parra, A., Paul, T., Pech, M., Pedreira, F., Pękala, J., Pelayo, R., Peña-Rodriguez, J., Pepe, I. M., Pereira, L. A. S., Perrone, L., Petermann, E., Peters, C., Petrera, S., Phuntsok, J., Piegaia, R., Pierog, T., Pieroni, P., Pimenta, M., Pirronello, V., Platino, M., Plum, M., Porowski, C., Prado, R. R., Privitera, P., Prouza, M., Quel, E. J., Querchfeld, S., Quinn, S., Rautenberg, J., Ravel, O., Ravignani, D., Revenu, B., Ridky, J., Risse, M., Ristori, P., Rizi, V., Rodrigues de Carvalho, W., Rodriguez Rojo, J., Rodríguez-Frías, M. D., Rogozin, D., Rosado, J., Roth, M., Roulet, E., Rovero, A. C., Saffi, S. J., Saftoiu, A., Salazar, H., Saleh, A., Salesa Greus, F., Salina, G., Sanabria Gomez, J. D., Sánchez, F., Sanchez-Lucas, P., Santos, E. M., Santos, E., Sarazin, F., Sarkar, B., Sarmento, R., Sarmiento-Cano, C., Sato, R., Scarso, C., Schauer, M., Scherini, V., Schieler, H., Schmidt, D., Scholten, O., Schoorlemmer, H., Schovánek, P., Schröder, F. G., Schulz, A., Schulz, J., Schumacher, J., Sciutto, S. J., Segreto, A., Settimo, M., Shadkam, A., Shellard, R. C., Sigl, G., Sima, O., Śmiałkowski, A., Šmída, R., Snow, G. R., Sommers, P., Sonntag, S., Sorokin, J., Squartini, R., Stanca, D., Stanič, S., Stapleton, J., Stasielak, J., Strafella, F., Stutz, A., Suarez, F., Suarez Durán, M., Sudholz, T., Suomijärvi, T., Supanitsky, A. D., Sutherland, M. S., Swain, J., Szadkowski, Z., Taborda, O. A., Tapia, A., Tepe, A., Theodoro, V. M., Timmermans, C., Todero Peixoto, C. J., Tomankova, L., Tomé, B., Tonachini, A., Torralba Elipe, G., Torres Machado, D., Travnicek, P., Trini, M., Ulrich, R., Unger, M., Urban, M., Valbuena-Delgado, A., Valdés Galicia, J. F., Valiño, I., Valore, L., van Aar, G., van Bodegom, P., van den Berg, A. M., van Vliet, A., Varela, E., Vargas Cárdenas, B., Varner, G., Vázquez, J. R., Vázquez, R. A., Veberič, D., Verzi, V., Vicha, J., Videla, M., Villaseñor, L., Vorobiov, S., Wahlberg, H., Wainberg, O., Walz, D., Watson, A. A., Weber, M., Weindl, A., Wiencke, L., Wilczyński, H., Winchen, T., Wittkowski, D., Wundheiler, B., Wykes, S., Yang, L., Yapici, T., Yelos, D., Zas, E., Zavrtanik, D., Zavrtanik, M., Zepeda, A., Zimmermann, B., Ziolkowski, M., Zong, Z., & Zuccarello, F. Testing hadronic interactions at ultrahigh energies with air showers measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.192001.
Aab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Ahn, E. J., Al Samarai, I., Albuquerque, I. F. M., Allekotte, I., Allen, J. D., Allison, P., Almela, A., Alvarez Castillo, J., Alvarez-Muñiz, J., Ambrosio, M., Anastasi, G. A., Anchordoqui, L., Andrada, B., Andringa, S., Aramo, C., Arqueros, F., Arsene, N., Asorey, H., Assis, P., Aublin, J., Avila, G., Badescu, A. M., Baus, C., Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. H., Bellido, J. A., Berat, C., Bertaina, M. E., Bertou, X., Biermann, P. L., Billoir, P., Biteau, J., Blaess, S. G., Blanco, A., Blazek, J., Bleve, C., Blümer, H., Boháčová, M., Boncioli, D., Bonifazi, C., Borodai, N., Botti, A. M., Brack, J., Brancus, I., Bretz, T., Bridgeman, A., Briechle, F. L., Buchholz, P., Bueno, A., Buitink, S., Buscemi, M., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Caccianiga, B., Caccianiga, L., Cancio, A., Canfora, F., Caramete, L., Caruso, R., Castellina, A., Cataldi, G., Cazon, L., Cester, R., Chavez, A. G., Chiavassa, A., Chinellato, J. A., Chirinos Diaz, J. C., Chudoba, J., Clay, R. W., Colalillo, R., Coleman, A., Collica, L., Coluccia, M. R., Conceição, R., Contreras, F., Cooper, M. J., Coutu, S., Covault, C. E., Cronin, J., Dallier, R., D’Amico, S., Daniel, B., Dasso, S., Daumiller, K., Dawson, B. R., de Almeida, R. M., de Jong, S. J., De Mauro, G., de Mello Neto, J. R. T., De Mitri, I., de Oliveira, J., de Souza, V., Debatin, J., del Peral, L., Deligny, O., Dhital, N., Di Giulio, C., Di Matteo, A., Díaz Castro, M. L., Diogo, F., Dobrigkeit, C., D’Olivo, J. C., Dorofeev, A., dos Anjos, R. C., Dova, M. T., Dundovic, A., Ebr, J., Engel, R., Erdmann, M., Erfani, M., Escobar, C. O., Espadanal, J., Etchegoyen, A., Falcke, H., Fang, K., Farrar, G. R., Fauth, A. C., Fazzini, N., Ferguson, A. P., Fick, B., Figueira, J. M., Filevich, A., Filipčič, A., Fratu, O., Freire, M. M., Fujii, T., Fuster, A., Gallo, F., García, B., Garcia-Pinto, D., Gate, F., Gemmeke, H., Gherghel-Lascu, A., Ghia, P. L., Giaccari, U., Giammarchi, M., Giller, M., Głas, D., Glaser, C., Glass, H., Golup, G., Gómez Berisso, M., Gómez Vitale, P. F., González, N., Gookin, B., Gordon, J., Gorgi, A., Gorham, P., Gouffon, P., Griffith, N., Grillo, A. F., Grubb, T. D., Guarino, F., Guedes, G. P., Hampel, M. R., Hansen, P., Harari, D., Harrison, T. A., Harton, J. L., Hasankiadeh, Q., Haungs, A., Hebbeker, T., Heck, D., Heimann, P., Herve, A. E., Hill, G. C., Hojvat, C., Hollon, N., Holt, E., Homola, P., Hörandel, J. R., Horvath, P., Hrabovský, M., Huege, T., Hulsman, J., Insolia, A., Isar, P. G., Jandt, I., Jansen, S., Jarne, C., Johnsen, J. A., Josebachuili, M., Kääpä, A., Kambeitz, O., Kampert, K. H., Kasper, P., Katkov, I., Keilhauer, B., Kemp, E., Kieckhafer, R. M., Klages, H. O., Kleifges, M., Kleinfeller, J., Krause, R., Krohm, N., Kuempel, D., Kukec Mezek, G., Kunka, N., Kuotb Awad, A., LaHurd, D., Latronico, L., Lauscher, M., Lautridou, P., Lebrun, P., Legumina, R., Leigui de Oliveira, M. A., Letessier-Selvon, A., Lhenry-Yvon, I., Link, K., Lopes, L., López, R., López Casado, A., Lucero, A., Malacari, M., Mallamaci, M., Mandat, D., Mantsch, P., Mariazzi, A. G., Marin, V., Mariş, I. C., Marsella, G., Martello, D., Martinez, H., Martínez Bravo, O., Masías Meza, J. J., Mathes, H. J., Mathys, S., Matthews, J., Matthews, J. A. J., Matthiae, G., Maurizio, D., Mayotte, E., Mazur, P. O., Medina, C., Medina-Tanco, G., Mello, V. B. B., Melo, D., Menshikov, A., Messina, S., Micheletti, M. I., Middendorf, L., Minaya, I. A., Miramonti, L., Mitrica, B., Molina-Bueno, L., Mollerach, S., Montanet, F., Morello, C., Mostafá, M., Moura, C. A., Müller, G., Muller, M. A., Müller, S., Naranjo, I., Navas, S., Necesal, P., Nellen, L., Nelles, A., Neuser, J., Nguyen, P. H., Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M., Niechciol, M., Niemietz, L., Niggemann, T., Nitz, D., Nosek, D., Novotny, V., Nožka, H., Núñez, L. A., Ochilo, L., Oikonomou, F., Olinto, A., Pakk Selmi-Dei, D., Palatka, M., Pallotta, J., Papenbreer, P., Parente, G., Parra, A., Paul, T., Pech, M., Pedreira, F., Pękala, J., Pelayo, R., Peña-Rodriguez, J., Pepe, I. M., Pereira, L. A. S., Perrone, L., Petermann, E., Peters, C., Petrera, S., Phuntsok, J., Piegaia, R., Pierog, T., Pieroni, P., Pimenta, M., Pirronello, V., Platino, M., Plum, M., Porowski, C., Prado, R. R., Privitera, P., Prouza, M., Quel, E. J., Querchfeld, S., Quinn, S., Rautenberg, J., Ravel, O., Ravignani, D., Revenu, B., Ridky, J., Risse, M., Ristori, P., Rizi, V., Rodrigues de Carvalho, W., Rodriguez Rojo, J., Rodríguez-Frías, M. D., Rogozin, D., Rosado, J., Roth, M., Roulet, E., Rovero, A. C., Saffi, S. J., Saftoiu, A., Salazar, H., Saleh, A., Salesa Greus, F., Salina, G., Sanabria Gomez, J. D., Sánchez, F., Sanchez-Lucas, P., Santos, E. M., Santos, E., Sarazin, F., Sarkar, B., Sarmento, R., Sarmiento-Cano, C., Sato, R., Scarso, C., Schauer, M., Scherini, V., Schieler, H., Schmidt, D., Scholten, O., Schoorlemmer, H., Schovánek, P., Schröder, F. G., Schulz, A., Schulz, J., Schumacher, J., Sciutto, S. J., Segreto, A., Settimo, M., Shadkam, A., Shellard, R. C., Sigl, G., Sima, O., Śmiałkowski, A., Šmída, R., Snow, G. R., Sommers, P., Sonntag, S., Sorokin, J., Squartini, R., Stanca, D., Stanič, S., Stapleton, J., Stasielak, J., Strafella, F., Stutz, A., Suarez, F., Suarez Durán, M., Sudholz, T., Suomijärvi, T., Supanitsky, A. D., Sutherland, M. S., Swain, J., Szadkowski, Z., Taborda, O. A., Tapia, A., Tepe, A., Theodoro, V. M., Timmermans, C., Todero Peixoto, C. J., Tomankova, L., Tomé, B., Tonachini, A., Torralba Elipe, G., Torres Machado, D., Travnicek, P., Trini, M., Ulrich, R., Unger, M., Urban, M., Valbuena-Delgado, A., Valdés Galicia, J. F., Valiño, I., Valore, L., van Aar, G., van Bodegom, P., van den Berg, A. M., van Vliet, A., Varela, E., Vargas Cárdenas, B., Varner, G., Vázquez, J. R., Vázquez, R. A., Veberič, D., Verzi, V., Vicha, J., Videla, M., Villaseñor, L., Vorobiov, S., Wahlberg, H., Wainberg, O., Walz, D., Watson, A. A., Weber, M., Weindl, A., Wiencke, L., Wilczyński, H., Winchen, T., Wittkowski, D., Wundheiler, B., Wykes, S., Yang, L., Yapici, T., Yelos, D., Zas, E., Zavrtanik, D., Zavrtanik, M., Zepeda, A., Zimmermann, B., Ziolkowski, M., Zong, Z., and Zuccarello, F. Mon . "Testing hadronic interactions at ultrahigh energies with air showers measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.192001. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1333138.
@article{osti_1333138,
title = {Testing hadronic interactions at ultrahigh energies with air showers measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory},
author = {Aab, A. and Abreu, P. and Aglietta, M. and Ahn, E. J. and Al Samarai, I. and Albuquerque, I. F. M. and Allekotte, I. and Allen, J. D. and Allison, P. and Almela, A. and Alvarez Castillo, J. and Alvarez-Muñiz, J. and Ambrosio, M. and Anastasi, G. A. and Anchordoqui, L. and Andrada, B. and Andringa, S. and Aramo, C. and Arqueros, F. and Arsene, N. and Asorey, H. and Assis, P. and Aublin, J. and Avila, G. and Badescu, A. M. and Baus, C. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker, K. H. and Bellido, J. A. and Berat, C. and Bertaina, M. E. and Bertou, X. and Biermann, P. L. and Billoir, P. and Biteau, J. and Blaess, S. G. and Blanco, A. and Blazek, J. and Bleve, C. and Blümer, H. and Boháčová, M. and Boncioli, D. and Bonifazi, C. and Borodai, N. and Botti, A. M. and Brack, J. and Brancus, I. and Bretz, T. and Bridgeman, A. and Briechle, F. L. and Buchholz, P. and Bueno, A. and Buitink, S. and Buscemi, M. and Caballero-Mora, K. S. and Caccianiga, B. and Caccianiga, L. and Cancio, A. and Canfora, F. and Caramete, L. and Caruso, R. and Castellina, A. and Cataldi, G. and Cazon, L. and Cester, R. and Chavez, A. G. and Chiavassa, A. and Chinellato, J. A. and Chirinos Diaz, J. C. and Chudoba, J. and Clay, R. W. and Colalillo, R. and Coleman, A. and Collica, L. and Coluccia, M. R. and Conceição, R. and Contreras, F. and Cooper, M. J. and Coutu, S. and Covault, C. E. and Cronin, J. and Dallier, R. and D’Amico, S. and Daniel, B. and Dasso, S. and Daumiller, K. and Dawson, B. R. and de Almeida, R. M. and de Jong, S. J. and De Mauro, G. and de Mello Neto, J. R. T. and De Mitri, I. and de Oliveira, J. and de Souza, V. and Debatin, J. and del Peral, L. and Deligny, O. and Dhital, N. and Di Giulio, C. and Di Matteo, A. and Díaz Castro, M. L. and Diogo, F. and Dobrigkeit, C. and D’Olivo, J. C. and Dorofeev, A. and dos Anjos, R. C. and Dova, M. T. and Dundovic, A. and Ebr, J. and Engel, R. and Erdmann, M. and Erfani, M. and Escobar, C. O. and Espadanal, J. and Etchegoyen, A. and Falcke, H. and Fang, K. and Farrar, G. R. and Fauth, A. C. and Fazzini, N. and Ferguson, A. P. and Fick, B. and Figueira, J. M. and Filevich, A. and Filipčič, A. and Fratu, O. and Freire, M. M. and Fujii, T. and Fuster, A. and Gallo, F. and García, B. and Garcia-Pinto, D. and Gate, F. and Gemmeke, H. and Gherghel-Lascu, A. and Ghia, P. L. and Giaccari, U. and Giammarchi, M. and Giller, M. and Głas, D. and Glaser, C. and Glass, H. and Golup, G. and Gómez Berisso, M. and Gómez Vitale, P. F. and González, N. and Gookin, B. and Gordon, J. and Gorgi, A. and Gorham, P. and Gouffon, P. and Griffith, N. and Grillo, A. F. and Grubb, T. D. and Guarino, F. and Guedes, G. P. and Hampel, M. R. and Hansen, P. and Harari, D. and Harrison, T. A. and Harton, J. L. and Hasankiadeh, Q. and Haungs, A. and Hebbeker, T. and Heck, D. and Heimann, P. and Herve, A. E. and Hill, G. C. and Hojvat, C. and Hollon, N. and Holt, E. and Homola, P. and Hörandel, J. R. and Horvath, P. and Hrabovský, M. and Huege, T. and Hulsman, J. and Insolia, A. and Isar, P. G. and Jandt, I. and Jansen, S. and Jarne, C. and Johnsen, J. A. and Josebachuili, M. and Kääpä, A. and Kambeitz, O. and Kampert, K. H. and Kasper, P. and Katkov, I. and Keilhauer, B. and Kemp, E. and Kieckhafer, R. M. and Klages, H. O. and Kleifges, M. and Kleinfeller, J. and Krause, R. and Krohm, N. and Kuempel, D. and Kukec Mezek, G. and Kunka, N. and Kuotb Awad, A. and LaHurd, D. and Latronico, L. and Lauscher, M. and Lautridou, P. and Lebrun, P. and Legumina, R. and Leigui de Oliveira, M. A. and Letessier-Selvon, A. and Lhenry-Yvon, I. and Link, K. and Lopes, L. and López, R. and López Casado, A. and Lucero, A. and Malacari, M. and Mallamaci, M. and Mandat, D. and Mantsch, P. and Mariazzi, A. G. and Marin, V. and Mariş, I. C. and Marsella, G. and Martello, D. and Martinez, H. and Martínez Bravo, O. and Masías Meza, J. J. and Mathes, H. J. and Mathys, S. and Matthews, J. and Matthews, J. A. J. and Matthiae, G. and Maurizio, D. and Mayotte, E. and Mazur, P. O. and Medina, C. and Medina-Tanco, G. and Mello, V. B. B. and Melo, D. and Menshikov, A. and Messina, S. and Micheletti, M. I. and Middendorf, L. and Minaya, I. A. and Miramonti, L. and Mitrica, B. and Molina-Bueno, L. and Mollerach, S. and Montanet, F. and Morello, C. and Mostafá, M. and Moura, C. A. and Müller, G. and Muller, M. A. and Müller, S. and Naranjo, I. and Navas, S. and Necesal, P. and Nellen, L. and Nelles, A. and Neuser, J. and Nguyen, P. H. and Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M. and Niechciol, M. and Niemietz, L. and Niggemann, T. and Nitz, D. and Nosek, D. and Novotny, V. and Nožka, H. and Núñez, L. A. and Ochilo, L. and Oikonomou, F. and Olinto, A. and Pakk Selmi-Dei, D. and Palatka, M. and Pallotta, J. and Papenbreer, P. and Parente, G. and Parra, A. and Paul, T. and Pech, M. and Pedreira, F. and Pękala, J. and Pelayo, R. and Peña-Rodriguez, J. and Pepe, I. M. and Pereira, L. A. S. and Perrone, L. and Petermann, E. and Peters, C. and Petrera, S. and Phuntsok, J. and Piegaia, R. and Pierog, T. and Pieroni, P. and Pimenta, M. and Pirronello, V. and Platino, M. and Plum, M. and Porowski, C. and Prado, R. R. and Privitera, P. and Prouza, M. and Quel, E. J. and Querchfeld, S. and Quinn, S. and Rautenberg, J. and Ravel, O. and Ravignani, D. and Revenu, B. and Ridky, J. and Risse, M. and Ristori, P. and Rizi, V. and Rodrigues de Carvalho, W. and Rodriguez Rojo, J. and Rodríguez-Frías, M. D. and Rogozin, D. and Rosado, J. and Roth, M. and Roulet, E. and Rovero, A. C. and Saffi, S. J. and Saftoiu, A. and Salazar, H. and Saleh, A. and Salesa Greus, F. and Salina, G. and Sanabria Gomez, J. D. and Sánchez, F. and Sanchez-Lucas, P. and Santos, E. M. and Santos, E. and Sarazin, F. and Sarkar, B. and Sarmento, R. and Sarmiento-Cano, C. and Sato, R. and Scarso, C. and Schauer, M. and Scherini, V. and Schieler, H. and Schmidt, D. and Scholten, O. and Schoorlemmer, H. and Schovánek, P. and Schröder, F. G. and Schulz, A. and Schulz, J. and Schumacher, J. and Sciutto, S. J. and Segreto, A. and Settimo, M. and Shadkam, A. and Shellard, R. C. and Sigl, G. and Sima, O. and Śmiałkowski, A. and Šmída, R. and Snow, G. R. and Sommers, P. and Sonntag, S. and Sorokin, J. and Squartini, R. and Stanca, D. and Stanič, S. and Stapleton, J. and Stasielak, J. and Strafella, F. and Stutz, A. and Suarez, F. and Suarez Durán, M. and Sudholz, T. and Suomijärvi, T. and Supanitsky, A. D. and Sutherland, M. S. and Swain, J. and Szadkowski, Z. and Taborda, O. A. and Tapia, A. and Tepe, A. and Theodoro, V. M. and Timmermans, C. and Todero Peixoto, C. J. and Tomankova, L. and Tomé, B. and Tonachini, A. and Torralba Elipe, G. and Torres Machado, D. and Travnicek, P. and Trini, M. and Ulrich, R. and Unger, M. and Urban, M. and Valbuena-Delgado, A. and Valdés Galicia, J. F. and Valiño, I. and Valore, L. and van Aar, G. and van Bodegom, P. and van den Berg, A. M. and van Vliet, A. and Varela, E. and Vargas Cárdenas, B. and Varner, G. and Vázquez, J. R. and Vázquez, R. A. and Veberič, D. and Verzi, V. and Vicha, J. and Videla, M. and Villaseñor, L. and Vorobiov, S. and Wahlberg, H. and Wainberg, O. and Walz, D. and Watson, A. A. and Weber, M. and Weindl, A. and Wiencke, L. and Wilczyński, H. and Winchen, T. and Wittkowski, D. and Wundheiler, B. and Wykes, S. and Yang, L. and Yapici, T. and Yelos, D. and Zas, E. and Zavrtanik, D. and Zavrtanik, M. and Zepeda, A. and Zimmermann, B. and Ziolkowski, M. and Zong, Z. and Zuccarello, F.},
abstractNote = {Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray air showers probe particle physics at energies beyond the reach of accelerators. Here we introduce a new method to test hadronic interaction models without relying on the absolute energy calibration, and apply it to events with primary energy 6–16 EeV (ECM = 110–170 TeV), whose longitudinal development and lateral distribution were simultaneously measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. As a result, the average hadronic shower is 1.33±0.16 (1.61±0.21) times larger than predicted using the leading LHC-tuned models EPOS-LHC (QGSJetII-04), with a corresponding excess of muons.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.192001},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 19,
volume = 117,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {10}
}

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