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Title: Green and sustainable remediation practices in Federal agency cleanup programs

Federal agencies manage hazardous waste sites under the assumption that environmental restoration will improve the environment by returning contaminated groundwater to beneficial use, removing waste residuals from a site, treating discharges to surface water, and reducing overall risks to human health and the environment. However, the associated time-consuming and expensive operations, extensive performance monitoring, and post-closure care can lead to unanticipated environmental impacts due to both the technological nature of these cleanup activities and the related protracted timelines. These life-cycle impacts can and should be included in the evaluation of remedial alternatives. Increasingly, Federal agencies are considering these life-cycle impacts— variously referred to as ‘‘environmental footprint analysis,’’ ‘‘sustainable remediation,’’ ‘‘green remediation,’’ ‘‘greener remediation,’’ and ‘‘green and sustainable remediation’’— when evaluating environmental restoration approaches. For the purposes of this paper, this concept will be referred to as ‘‘green and sustainable remediation’’ (GSR), with application of GSR assumed to take place across the cleanup life cycle, from the investigation phase through site closeout. This paper will discuss the history of GSR, what GSR is, who is implementing GSR, and GSR metrics. Finally, the paper will also discuss two approaches to GSR, using case studies to understand and implement it; the first willmore » be a qualitative approach, and the second a more detailed quantitative approach« less
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [3] ;  [3]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Washington, D.C. (United States)
  2. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Omaha, NE (United States)
  3. U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)
  4. U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357; contract DE-AC02-06CH11357
Published Article
Journal Name:
Environmental Earth Sciences
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 75; Journal Issue: 21; Journal ID: ISSN 1866-6280
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; environmental footprint; Executive Order 13693; green cleanups; green remediation; sustainability; sustainable remediation forum (SURF)
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1346855