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Title: Type II supernova energetics and comparison of light curves to shock-cooling models

During the first few days after explosion, Type II supernovae (SNe) are dominated by relatively simple physics. Theoretical predictions regarding early-time SN light curves in the ultraviolet (UV) and optical bands are thus quite robust. We present, for the first time, a sample of 57 R-band SN II light curves that are well-monitored during their rise, with $$\gt 5$$ detections during the first 10 days after discovery, and a well-constrained time of explosion to within 1–3 days. We show that the energy per unit mass (E/M) can be deduced to roughly a factor of five by comparing early-time optical data to the 2011 model of Rabinak & Waxman, while the progenitor radius cannot be determined based on R-band data alone. We find that SN II explosion energies span a range of E/M = (0.2–20) × 1051 erg/(10 $${M}_{\odot }$$), and have a mean energy per unit mass of $$\langle E/M\rangle =0.85\times {10}^{51}$$ erg/(10 $${M}_{\odot }$$), corrected for Malmquist bias. Assuming a small spread in progenitor masses, this indicates a large intrinsic diversity in explosion energy. Moreover, E/M is positively correlated with the amount of 56Ni produced in the explosion, as predicted by some recent models of core-collapse SNe. We further present several empirical correlations. The peak magnitude is correlated with the decline rate ($${\rm{\Delta }}{m}_{15}$$), the decline rate is weakly correlated with the rise time, and the rise time is not significantly correlated with the peak magnitude. Faster declining SNe are more luminous and have longer rise times. Lastly, this limits the possible power sources for such events.
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  1. Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)
  2. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  3. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
  4. Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States)
  5. Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  6. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark)
  7. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  8. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  9. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  10. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  11. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)
  12. Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
  13. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA (United States)
  14. Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)
  15. Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)
  16. San Diego State Univ., San Diego, CA (United States)
  17. San Diego State Univ., San Diego, CA (United States); Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)
  18. San Diego State Univ., San Diego, CA (United States); The Univ. of Tokyo, Chiba (Japan)
  19. Liverpool John Moores Univ., Liverpool (United Kingdom); Max-Planck Institut fur Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)
  20. INAF, Institute of Space Astrophysics and Cosmic Physics, Bologna (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy)
  21. Max-Planck-Institut fur Astrophysik, Garching (Germany); Technische Univ. Munchen, Garching (Germany)
  22. National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  23. Univ. of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)
  24. ESO, Garching (Germany)
  25. Univ. of Belgrade (Serbia)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 820; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Research Org:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
Country of Publication:
United States
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; astronomy and astrophysics; supernovae: general
OSTI Identifier: