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Title: C4MIP – The Coupled Climate–Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project: Experimental protocol for CMIP6

Abstract

Coordinated experimental design and implementation has become a cornerstone of global climate modelling. Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs) enable systematic and robust analysis of results across many models, by reducing the influence of ad hoc differences in model set-up or experimental boundary conditions. As it enters its 6th phase, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) has grown significantly in scope with the design and documentation of individual simulations delegated to individual climate science communities. The Coupled Climate–Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (C4MIP) takes responsibility for design, documentation, and analysis of carbon cycle feedbacks and interactions in climate simulations. These feedbacks are potentially large and play a leading-order contribution in determining the atmospheric composition in response to human emissions of CO2 and in the setting of emissions targets to stabilize climate or avoid dangerous climate change. For over a decade, C4MIP has coordinated coupled climate–carbon cycle simulations, and in this paper we describe the C4MIP simulations that will be formally part of CMIP6. While the climate–carbon cycle community has created this experimental design, the simulations also fit within the wider CMIP activity, conform to some common standards including documentation and diagnostic requests, and are designed to complement the CMIP core experiments knownmore » as the Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima (DECK). C4MIP has three key strands of scientific motivation and the requested simulations are designed to satisfy their needs: (1) pre-industrial and historical simulations (formally part of the common set of CMIP6 experiments) to enable model evaluation, (2) idealized coupled and partially coupled simulations with 1 % per year increases in CO2 to enable diagnosis of feedback strength and its components, (3) future scenario simulations to project how the Earth system will respond to anthropogenic activity over the 21st century and beyond. This paper documents in detail these simulations, explains their rationale and planned analysis, and describes how to set up and run the simulations. Particular attention is paid to boundary conditions, input data, and requested output diagnostics. It is important that modelling groups participating in C4MIP adhere as closely as possible to this experimental design.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [5];  [6];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [5];  [5];  [12];  [9]
  1. Med Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom)
  2. Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Victoria (Canada)
  3. Univ. of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom)
  4. Univ. Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  5. Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany)
  6. NOAA/GFDL, Princeton, NJ (United States)
  7. Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)
  8. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  9. Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany)
  10. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Kanagawa (Japan)
  11. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  12. Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER)
OSTI Identifier:
1327771
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1379578
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geoscientific Model Development (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Geoscientific Model Development (Online); Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 1991-9603
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Jones, Chris D., Arora, Vivek, Friedlingstein, Pierre, Bopp, Laurent, Brovkin, Victor, Dunne, John, Graven, Heather, Hoffman, Forrest, Ilyina, Tatiana, John, Jasmin G., Jung, Martin, Kawamiya, Michio, Koven, Charlie, Pongratz, Julia, Raddatz, Thomas, Randerson, James T., and Zaehle, Sonke. C4MIP – The Coupled Climate–Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project: Experimental protocol for CMIP6. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-9-2853-2016.
Jones, Chris D., Arora, Vivek, Friedlingstein, Pierre, Bopp, Laurent, Brovkin, Victor, Dunne, John, Graven, Heather, Hoffman, Forrest, Ilyina, Tatiana, John, Jasmin G., Jung, Martin, Kawamiya, Michio, Koven, Charlie, Pongratz, Julia, Raddatz, Thomas, Randerson, James T., & Zaehle, Sonke. C4MIP – The Coupled Climate–Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project: Experimental protocol for CMIP6. United States. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-9-2853-2016
Jones, Chris D., Arora, Vivek, Friedlingstein, Pierre, Bopp, Laurent, Brovkin, Victor, Dunne, John, Graven, Heather, Hoffman, Forrest, Ilyina, Tatiana, John, Jasmin G., Jung, Martin, Kawamiya, Michio, Koven, Charlie, Pongratz, Julia, Raddatz, Thomas, Randerson, James T., and Zaehle, Sonke. Thu . "C4MIP – The Coupled Climate–Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project: Experimental protocol for CMIP6". United States. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-9-2853-2016. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1327771.
@article{osti_1327771,
title = {C4MIP – The Coupled Climate–Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project: Experimental protocol for CMIP6},
author = {Jones, Chris D. and Arora, Vivek and Friedlingstein, Pierre and Bopp, Laurent and Brovkin, Victor and Dunne, John and Graven, Heather and Hoffman, Forrest and Ilyina, Tatiana and John, Jasmin G. and Jung, Martin and Kawamiya, Michio and Koven, Charlie and Pongratz, Julia and Raddatz, Thomas and Randerson, James T. and Zaehle, Sonke},
abstractNote = {Coordinated experimental design and implementation has become a cornerstone of global climate modelling. Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs) enable systematic and robust analysis of results across many models, by reducing the influence of ad hoc differences in model set-up or experimental boundary conditions. As it enters its 6th phase, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) has grown significantly in scope with the design and documentation of individual simulations delegated to individual climate science communities. The Coupled Climate–Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (C4MIP) takes responsibility for design, documentation, and analysis of carbon cycle feedbacks and interactions in climate simulations. These feedbacks are potentially large and play a leading-order contribution in determining the atmospheric composition in response to human emissions of CO2 and in the setting of emissions targets to stabilize climate or avoid dangerous climate change. For over a decade, C4MIP has coordinated coupled climate–carbon cycle simulations, and in this paper we describe the C4MIP simulations that will be formally part of CMIP6. While the climate–carbon cycle community has created this experimental design, the simulations also fit within the wider CMIP activity, conform to some common standards including documentation and diagnostic requests, and are designed to complement the CMIP core experiments known as the Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima (DECK). C4MIP has three key strands of scientific motivation and the requested simulations are designed to satisfy their needs: (1) pre-industrial and historical simulations (formally part of the common set of CMIP6 experiments) to enable model evaluation, (2) idealized coupled and partially coupled simulations with 1 % per year increases in CO2 to enable diagnosis of feedback strength and its components, (3) future scenario simulations to project how the Earth system will respond to anthropogenic activity over the 21st century and beyond. This paper documents in detail these simulations, explains their rationale and planned analysis, and describes how to set up and run the simulations. Particular attention is paid to boundary conditions, input data, and requested output diagnostics. It is important that modelling groups participating in C4MIP adhere as closely as possible to this experimental design.},
doi = {10.5194/gmd-9-2853-2016},
journal = {Geoscientific Model Development (Online)},
number = 8,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {8}
}

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Cited by: 8 works
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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Relation of C4MIP simulations to CMIP6 DECK and historical simulations and the ssp585 and ssp5-34-over future scenario simulation proposed for the ScenarioMIP. Note that at the time of preparing this manuscript the details of the SSP5-3.4-OS-Ext extension to 2300 are not available; hence, it could not be includedmore » in the figure, but it is still requested as a C4MIP tier-2 simulation.« less

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    Evaluation of CNRM Earth System Model, CNRM‐ESM2‐1: Role of Earth System Processes in Present‐Day and Future Climate
    journal, December 2019

    • Séférian, Roland; Nabat, Pierre; Michou, Martine
    • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1029/2019ms001791

    Forcings, Feedbacks, and Climate Sensitivity in HadGEM3‐GC3.1 and UKESM1
    journal, December 2019

    • Andrews, Timothy; Andrews, Martin B.; Bodas‐Salcedo, Alejandro
    • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1029/2019ms001866

    Scenarios towards limiting global mean temperature increase below 1.5 °C
    journal, March 2018


    Increased water-use efficiency and reduced CO2 uptake by plants during droughts at a continental scale
    journal, August 2018

    • Peters, Wouter; van der Velde, Ivar R.; van Schaik, Erik
    • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 11, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1038/s41561-018-0212-7

    Temperature and moisture are minor drivers of regional-scale soil organic carbon dynamics
    journal, April 2019


    Observed and modelled historical trends in the water‐use efficiency of plants and ecosystems
    journal, May 2019

    • Lavergne, Aliénor; Graven, Heather; De Kauwe, Martin G.
    • Global Change Biology
    • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14634

    Historical changes in the stomatal limitation of photosynthesis: empirical support for an optimality principle
    journal, December 2019

    • Lavergne, Aliénor; Voelker, Steve; Csank, Adam
    • New Phytologist, Vol. 225, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1111/nph.16314

    Permafrost thawing puts the frozen carbon at risk over the Tibetan Plateau
    journal, May 2020


    C4MIP nitrogen deposition forcing for 1%CO2 simulation version 1.0
    dataset, January 2019


    Carbon–climate feedbacks accelerate ocean acidification
    journal, January 2018


    Evaluating the simulated mean soil carbon transit times by Earth system models using observations
    journal, January 2019


    ESD Reviews: Climate feedbacks in the Earth system and prospects for their evaluation
    journal, January 2019

    • Heinze, Christoph; Eyring, Veronika; Friedlingstein, Pierre
    • Earth System Dynamics, Vol. 10, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.5194/esd-10-379-2019

    Assessing carbon dioxide removal through global and regional ocean alkalinization under high and low emission pathways
    journal, January 2018

    • Lenton, Andrew; Matear, Richard J.; Keller, David P.
    • Earth System Dynamics, Vol. 9, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.5194/esd-9-339-2018

    Carbon–nitrogen interactions in idealized simulations with JSBACH (version 3.10)
    journal, January 2017

    • Goll, Daniel S.; Winkler, Alexander J.; Raddatz, Thomas
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 10, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-10-2009-2017

    Biogeochemical protocols and diagnostics for the CMIP6 Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP)
    journal, January 2017

    • Orr, James C.; Najjar, Raymond G.; Aumont, Olivier
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 10, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-10-2169-2017

    The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 3: The last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations
    journal, January 2017

    • Jungclaus, Johann H.; Bard, Edouard; Baroni, Mélanie
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 10, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-10-4005-2017

    Compiled records of carbon isotopes in atmospheric CO 2 for historical simulations in CMIP6
    journal, January 2017

    • Graven, Heather; Allison, Colin E.; Etheridge, David M.
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 10, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-10-4405-2017

    AerChemMIP: quantifying the effects of chemistry and aerosols in CMIP6
    journal, January 2017

    • Collins, William J.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Schulz, Michael
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 10, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-10-585-2017

    The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 1: Overview and over-arching analysis plan
    journal, January 2018

    • Kageyama, Masa; Braconnot, Pascale; Harrison, Sandy P.
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 11, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-11-1033-2018

    The Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (CDRMIP): rationale and experimental protocol for CMIP6
    journal, January 2018

    • Keller, David P.; Lenton, Andrew; Scott, Vivian
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 11, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-11-1133-2018

    The Polar Amplification Model Intercomparison Project (PAMIP) contribution to CMIP6: investigating the causes and consequences of polar amplification
    journal, January 2019

    • Smith, Doug M.; Screen, James A.; Deser, Clara
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 12, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-12-1139-2019

    The Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model (BCC-CSM): the main progress from CMIP5 to CMIP6
    journal, January 2019

    • Wu, Tongwen; Lu, Yixiong; Fang, Yongjie
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 12, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-12-1573-2019

    The Zero Emissions Commitment Model Intercomparison Project (ZECMIP) contribution to C4MIP: quantifying committed climate changes following zero carbon emissions
    journal, January 2019

    • Jones, Chris D.; Frölicher, Thomas L.; Koven, Charles
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 12, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-12-4375-2019

    Limitations of the 1 % experiment as the benchmark idealized experiment for carbon cycle intercomparison in C 4 MIP
    journal, January 2019


    The CMIP6 Data Request (DREQ, version 01.00.31)
    journal, January 2020

    • Juckes, Martin; Taylor, Karl E.; Durack, Paul J.
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 13, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-13-201-2020

    The generation of gridded emissions data for CMIP6
    journal, January 2020

    • Feng, Leyang; Smith, Steven J.; Braun, Caleb
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 13, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-13-461-2020

    The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP) contribution to CMIP6: rationale and experimental design
    journal, January 2016

    • Lawrence, David M.; Hurtt, George C.; Arneth, Almut
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 9, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-9-2973-2016