skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications

Abstract

The fuel economy and emissions of conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions after treatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicated that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle, which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus; the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus power trains were found to require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to maintain control of particulate matter. Finally, plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed because of the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center (NTRC)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1319203
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Transportation Research Record
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2570; Journal ID: ISSN 0361-1981
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS

Citation Formats

Gao, Zhiming, Daw, C. Stuart, Smith, David E., LaClair, Tim J., Parks, James E., and Jones, Perry T. Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.3141/2570-11.
Gao, Zhiming, Daw, C. Stuart, Smith, David E., LaClair, Tim J., Parks, James E., & Jones, Perry T. Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications. United States. doi:10.3141/2570-11.
Gao, Zhiming, Daw, C. Stuart, Smith, David E., LaClair, Tim J., Parks, James E., and Jones, Perry T. Mon . "Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications". United States. doi:10.3141/2570-11. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1319203.
@article{osti_1319203,
title = {Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications},
author = {Gao, Zhiming and Daw, C. Stuart and Smith, David E. and LaClair, Tim J. and Parks, James E. and Jones, Perry T.},
abstractNote = {The fuel economy and emissions of conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions after treatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicated that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle, which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus; the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus power trains were found to require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to maintain control of particulate matter. Finally, plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed because of the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.},
doi = {10.3141/2570-11},
journal = {Transportation Research Record},
number = ,
volume = 2570,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

TABLE 1 TABLE 1: Literature Summary for Fuel Economy and Emissions Reduction.

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Evaluation of In-Use Fuel Economy for Hybrid and Regular Transit Buses
journal, January 2013

  • Hallmark, Shauna L.; Wang, Bo; Qiu, Yu
  • Journal of Transportation Technologies, Vol. 03, Issue 01
  • DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2013.31006

Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes
journal, April 2014

  • Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J.; Daw, C. Stuart
  • SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.4271/2014-01-1562

Simulated Fuel Economy and Emissions Performance during City and Interstate Driving for a Heavy-Duty Hybrid Truck
journal, April 2013

  • Daw, C. Stuart; Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.
  • SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.4271/2013-01-1033

Evaluation of the efficiency and the drive cycle emissions for a hydrogen direct-injection engine
journal, November 2012

  • Wallner, Thomas; Matthias, Nicholas S.; Scarcelli, Riccardo
  • Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Vol. 227, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1177/0954407012461875

Comparative Study of Hybrid Powertrains on Fuel Saving, Emissions, and Component Energy Loss in HD Trucks
journal, May 2014

  • Gao, Zhiming; Finney, Charles; Daw, Charles
  • SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles, Vol. 7, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.4271/2014-01-2326

Comparisons of the simulated emissions and fuel efficiencies of diesel and gasoline hybrid electric vehicles
journal, May 2011

  • Gao, Z.; Chakravarthy, V. K.; Daw, C. S.
  • Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Vol. 225, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1177/0954407011403231

A proposed methodology for estimating transient engine-out temperature and emissions from steady-state maps
journal, February 2010

  • Gao, Z.; Conklin, J. C.; Daw, C. S.
  • International Journal of Engine Research, Vol. 11, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1243/14680874JER05609