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Title: Development of large-scale Birkeland currents determined from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment

The Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment uses magnetic field data from the Iridium constellation to derive the global Birkeland current distribution every 10 min. We examine cases in which the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) rotated from northward to southward resulting in onsets of the Birkeland currents. Dayside Region 1/2 currents, totaling ~25% of the final current, appear within 20 min of the IMF southward turning and remain steady. In the onset of nightside currents occurs 40 to 70 min after the dayside currents appear. Afterwards, the currents intensify at dawn, dusk, and on the dayside, yielding a fully formed Region 1/2 system ~30 min after the nightside onset. Our results imply that the dayside Birkeland currents are driven by magnetopause reconnection, and the remainder of the system forms as magnetospheric return flows start and progress sunward, ultimately closing the Dungey convection cycle.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [4]
  1. Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States)
  2. Univ. of New Castle, New South Wales (Australia)
  3. Univ. of New Castle, New South Wales (Australia); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  4. Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States); Draper Lab., Cambridge, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geophysical Research Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES
OSTI Identifier:
1319155

Anderson, B. J., Korth, H., Waters, C. L., Green, D. L., Merkin, V. G., Barnes, R. J., and Dyrud, L. P.. Development of large-scale Birkeland currents determined from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1002/2014GL059941.
Anderson, B. J., Korth, H., Waters, C. L., Green, D. L., Merkin, V. G., Barnes, R. J., & Dyrud, L. P.. Development of large-scale Birkeland currents determined from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment. United States. doi:10.1002/2014GL059941.
Anderson, B. J., Korth, H., Waters, C. L., Green, D. L., Merkin, V. G., Barnes, R. J., and Dyrud, L. P.. 2014. "Development of large-scale Birkeland currents determined from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment". United States. doi:10.1002/2014GL059941. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1319155.
@article{osti_1319155,
title = {Development of large-scale Birkeland currents determined from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment},
author = {Anderson, B. J. and Korth, H. and Waters, C. L. and Green, D. L. and Merkin, V. G. and Barnes, R. J. and Dyrud, L. P.},
abstractNote = {The Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment uses magnetic field data from the Iridium constellation to derive the global Birkeland current distribution every 10 min. We examine cases in which the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) rotated from northward to southward resulting in onsets of the Birkeland currents. Dayside Region 1/2 currents, totaling ~25% of the final current, appear within 20 min of the IMF southward turning and remain steady. In the onset of nightside currents occurs 40 to 70 min after the dayside currents appear. Afterwards, the currents intensify at dawn, dusk, and on the dayside, yielding a fully formed Region 1/2 system ~30 min after the nightside onset. Our results imply that the dayside Birkeland currents are driven by magnetopause reconnection, and the remainder of the system forms as magnetospheric return flows start and progress sunward, ultimately closing the Dungey convection cycle.},
doi = {10.1002/2014GL059941},
journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
number = 9,
volume = 41,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {5}
}