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Title: Presence of Li clusters in molten LiCl-Li

Abstract

Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. ln the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. Furthermore, this observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8, in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1307568
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Merwin, Augustus, Phillips, William C., Williamson, Mark A., Willit, James L., Motsegood, Perry N., and Chidambaram, Dev. Presence of Li clusters in molten LiCl-Li. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1038/srep25435.
Merwin, Augustus, Phillips, William C., Williamson, Mark A., Willit, James L., Motsegood, Perry N., & Chidambaram, Dev. Presence of Li clusters in molten LiCl-Li. United States. doi:10.1038/srep25435.
Merwin, Augustus, Phillips, William C., Williamson, Mark A., Willit, James L., Motsegood, Perry N., and Chidambaram, Dev. Thu . "Presence of Li clusters in molten LiCl-Li". United States. doi:10.1038/srep25435. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1307568.
@article{osti_1307568,
title = {Presence of Li clusters in molten LiCl-Li},
author = {Merwin, Augustus and Phillips, William C. and Williamson, Mark A. and Willit, James L. and Motsegood, Perry N. and Chidambaram, Dev},
abstractNote = {Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. ln the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. Furthermore, this observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8, in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.},
doi = {10.1038/srep25435},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = ,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {5}
}

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F.; Yosim, S. J.</span> </li> <li> The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 38, Issue 7</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1776939" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1063/1.1776939<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.06.161" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Electrochemical reduction behavior of a highly porous SIMFUEL particle in a LiCl molten salt<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2012-10-01">October 2012</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Choi, Eun-Young; Lee, Jae Won; Park, Jang Jin</span> </li> <li> Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 207-208</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.06.161" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1016/j.cej.2012.06.161<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> </div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All References</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; 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font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1981-07-01">July 1981</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Juncar, P.; Pinard, J.; Hamon, J.</span> </li> <li> Metrologia, Vol. 17, Issue 3</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1088/0026-1394/17/3/001" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1088/0026-1394/17/3/001<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2015.02.009" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Recombination gamma-luminescence at the nanometal Li – dielectric LiF interfaces<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2015-06-01">June 2015</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Ibragimova, E. M.; Mussaeva, M. A.; Buzrikov, Sh. N.</span> </li> <li> Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 111</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2015.02.009" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1016/j.radphyschem.2015.02.009<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1179/mst.1998.14.1.1" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Effect of aging on microstructure and mechanical properties of cobalt free 18%Ni (250 grade) maraging steel<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1998-01-01">January 1998</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Sinha, P. 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The Concentration, Stability and Particle-Size Distribution of Dispersed Lithium in Molten Lithium Chloride<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1976-04-01">April 1976</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Nakanishi, Koichiro; Watanabe, Nobuatsu</span> </li> <li> Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, Vol. 49, Issue 4</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1246/bcsj.49.994" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1246/bcsj.49.994<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/s0013-4686(97)10141-4" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Electrochemical investigations of the liquid lithium/(LiCl–KCl eutectic melt) interface. 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Guidotti, Ronald A.</span> </li> <li> Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 164, Issue 1</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.10.080" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.10.080<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.896" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Ionization energies of hypervalent Li2F, Li2Cl and Na2Cl molecules obtained by surface ionization electron impact neutralization mass spectrometry<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2003-01-01">January 2003</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Ne?kovi?, Olivera M.; Veljkovi?, Miomir V.; Veli?kovi?, Suzana R.</span> </li> <li> Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 17, Issue 3</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.896" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1002/rcm.896<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2006.05.139" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Characteristics of an electrochemical reduction of Ta2O5 for the preparation of metallic tantalum in a LiCl–Li2O molten salt<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2007-08-01">August 2007</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Jeong, Sang Mun; Jung, Jin-Young; Seo, Chung-Seok</span> </li> <li> Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 440, Issue 1-2</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2006.05.139" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1016/j.jallcom.2006.05.139<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2013.09.061" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Electrochemical reduction of UO2 in LiCl–Li2O molten salt using porous and nonporous anode shrouds<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2014-01-01">January 2014</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Choi, Eun-Young; Won, Chan Yeon; Cha, Ju-Sun</span> </li> <li> Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol. 444, Issue 1-3</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2013.09.061" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1016/j.jnucmat.2013.09.061<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.35.9437" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Systematic ab initio configuration-interaction study of alkali-metal clusters: Relation between electronic structure and geometry of small Li clusters<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1987-06-01">June 1987</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Boustani, I.; Pewestorf, W.; Fantucci, P.</span> </li> <li> Physical Review B, Vol. 35, Issue 18</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.35.9437" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1103/physrevb.35.9437<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.91.135502" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Nanocluster Formation in Electron-Irradiated L i 2 O Crystals Observed by Elastic Diffuse Neutron Scattering<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2003-09-01">September 2003</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; 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margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Hur, Jin-Mok; Lee, Su-Chul; Jeong, Sang-Mun</span> </li> <li> Chemistry Letters, Vol. 36, Issue 8</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1246/cl.2007.1028" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1246/cl.2007.1028<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/bbpc.19840880337" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Raman Measurements of Matrix-Isolated Small Metal Clusters<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1984-03-01">March 1984</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Froben, F. W.; Schulze, W.</span> </li> <li> Berichte der Bunsengesellschaft für physikalische Chemie, Vol. 88, Issue 3</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/bbpc.19840880337" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1002/bbpc.19840880337<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1149/1.3159348" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Influence of Some Factors upon Electrodeposition of Liquid Li and Mg<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">conference</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2009-01-01">January 2009</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Takenaka, Toshihide; Shigeta, Kouji; Masuhama, Hiroshi</span> </li> <li> 214th ECS Meeting, ECS Transactions</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1149/1.3159348" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1149/1.3159348<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.58.1786" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Vibrational frequencies and intensities of small molecules: All-electron, pseudopotential, and mixed-potential methodologies<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1998-07-01">July 1998</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Briley, Arlin; Pederson, Mark R.; Jackson, Koblar A.</span> </li> <li> Physical Review B, Vol. 58, Issue 4</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.58.1786" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1103/physrevb.58.1786<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1555800" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Raman spectroscopic investigation of small matrix-isolated lithium clusters<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2003-04-15">April 2003</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Kornath, Andreas; Kaufmann, Alexander; Zoermer, Anja</span> </li> <li> The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 118, Issue 15</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1555800" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1063/1.1555800<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1776939" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Electrical Conductivities of Molten Bi–BiI 3 Solutions<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1963-04-01">April 1963</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Grantham, L. F.; Yosim, S. J.</span> </li> <li> The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 38, Issue 7</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1776939" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1063/1.1776939<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1021/ic00343a060" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Fluorodilithium(1+) and hydroxodilithium(1+) in molten alkali-metal nitrate<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1990-09-01">September 1990</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Bengtsson, L.; Holmberg, Bertil; Ulvenlund, S.</span> </li> <li> Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 29, Issue 18</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1021/ic00343a060" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1021/ic00343a060<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.66.214102" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Vacuum ultraviolet absorption and ion track effects in LiF crystals irradiated with swift ions<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2002-12-01">December 2002</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Davidson, A. T.; Schwartz, K.; Comins, J. D.</span> </li> <li> Physical Review B, Vol. 66, Issue 21</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.66.214102" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1103/physrevb.66.214102<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1021/j100809a517" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">MISCIBILITY OF METALS WITH SALTS. VI. LITHIUM-LITHIUM HALIDE SYSTEMS <sup>1</sup><span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1962-03-01">March 1962</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Dworkin, A. S.; Bronstein, H. R.; Bredig, M. A.</span> </li> <li> The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 66, Issue 3</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1021/j100809a517" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1021/j100809a517<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01542a014" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">The Electrical Conductivity of Solutions of Alkali Metals in their Molten Halides <sup>1</sup><span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1958-05-01">May 1958</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Bronstein, H. R.; Bredig, M. A.</span> </li> <li> Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 80, Issue 9</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01542a014" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1021/ja01542a014<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> </div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All Cited By</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; text-transform:capitalize;"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-filter="type" data-pattern="conference"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> conference<small class="text-muted"> (1)</small></a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; text-transform:capitalize;"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-filter="type" data-pattern="journal"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> journal<small class="text-muted"> (37)</small></a></li> </ul> <div style="margin-top:2em;"> <form class="pure-form small text-muted citation-search"> <label for="citation-search-text" class="sr-only">Search</label> <input class="search form-control pure-input-1" id="citation-search-text" placeholder="Search" style="margin-bottom:10px;" /> <fieldset> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="name" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="citation-search-sort-name"><label for="citation-search-sort-name" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by title</label></div> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="date" data-order="desc" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="citation-search-sort-date"><label for="citation-search-sort-date" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by date</label></div> </fieldset> <div class="text-left" style="margin-left:1em;"> <a href="" class="filter-clear clearfix" title="Clear filter / sort" style="font-weight:normal; float:none;">[ × clear filter / sort ]</a> </div> </form> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section id="biblio-related" class="tab-content tab-content-sec " data-tab="biblio"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-9 order-sm-9"> <section id="biblio-similar" class="tab-content tab-content-sec active" data-tab="related"> <div class="padding"> <p class="lead text-muted" style="font-size: 18px; margin-top:0px;">Similar Records in DOE PAGES and OSTI.GOV collections:</p> <aside> <ul class="item-list" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ItemList" style="padding-left:0; list-style-type: none;"> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="0" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1606536-fluid-structure-molten-liclli-solutions" itemprop="url">Fluid Structure of Molten LiCl–Li Solutions</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Guo, Jicheng</span> ; <span class="author">Merwin, Augustus</span> ; <span class="author">Benmore, Chris J.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Journal of Physical Chemistry. B, Condensed Matter, Materials, Surfaces, Interfaces and Biophysical Chemistry</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium (LiCl-Li) play an essential role in the electrolytic reduction of various metal oxides. These mixtures possess unique high temperature physical and chemical properties that have been investigated for decades. However, due to their extreme chemical reactivity, no study to date has been capable of definitively proving the basic physical nature of Li dissolution in molten LiCl. In this study, the evolution of the structure of molten LiCl-Li is probed as metallic Li is electrochemically introduced into the melt in situ, using synchrotron radiation experiments based on high energy wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS)<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The time-resolved scattering results indicate the formation of transient Cl- ion cages surrounding low-density voids with a periodicity of similar to 8.3 angstrom, which suggests the formation of metastable Li nanocluster. The structure of the LiCl-Li nanoclusters in the solution is modeled using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. We report the simulation results are in agreement with the X-ray diffraction measurement and suggest the nanoclusters are predominantly Li-8, along with smaller clusters.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.9b07479" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1606536" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1021/acs.jpcb.9b07479</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="2" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1511100-effect-metallic-li-surface-chemistry-inconel-exposed-molten-licl-li2o-li" itemprop="url">Effect of Metallic Li on the Surface Chemistry of Inconel 625 Exposed to Molten LiCl-Li<sub>2</sub>O-Li</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Phillips, William</span> ; <span class="author">Chidambaram, Dev</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Journal of the Electrochemical Society</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">This study explores the surface chemistry of Inconel 625 samples exposed to molten LiCl-Li<sub>2</sub>O-Li solutions at 650°C for 500 and 1000hr and aims to understand the effect of solvated Li on corrosion behavior in molten LiCl-Li<sub>2</sub>O-Li. The surfaces of Inconel 625 samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The oxide films formed on the surface of the samples in the absence of Li is composed of LiCrO<sub>2</sub>, with small contributions of Li<sub>2</sub>CrO<sub>4</sub> and NiFexCr<sub>2</sub>-xO<sub>4</sub>. The presence of Li was observed to destabilize these compounds, resulting in a primarily metallic surface with trace amounts of oxidized<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> Cr, Mo, and Nb present depending on the concentration of Li in solution.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1149/2.0231911jes" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1511100" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="PA" >10.1149/2.0231911jes</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="3" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1582223-molten-battery-consisting-li-metal-anode-alcl3-licl-cathode-solid-electrolyte" itemprop="url">A molten battery consisting of Li metal anode, AlCl3-LiCl cathode and solid electrolyte</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Lang, Jialiang</span> ; <span class="author">Liu, Kai</span> ; <span class="author">Jin, Yang</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Energy Storage Materials</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">High performance rechargeable batteries are crucially needed to address the demands of grid-scale stationary energy storage. High temperature battery systems, such as Na-S battery, Na-NiCl2 battery (ZEBRA battery) and liquid metal electrode (LME) battery, exhibit advantages like high power density and high cyclic stability, but also suffer from the high operating temperature. We recently invented new concept of molten lithium metal batteries, consisting of liquid lithium anodes, alloy (Sn, Bi, Pb) liquid cathodes and lithium ion conductor as solid electrolytes. Here we demonstrate a molten metal chloride battery that operates at a relatively low temperature of 210 °C. The battery<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> has been designed to include molten (AlCl3-LiCl) cathode, solid electrolyte (garnet-type Li6.4La3Ta0.6Zr1.4O12 (LLZTO) ceramic tube) and molten lithium anode. The assembled AlCl3-LiCl||LLZTO||Li full cell has an average discharge voltage of 1.55 V and energy efficiency of 83% and has been successfully cycled for 100 cycles (800 h) without capacity fade. The theoretical specific energy of cell is 350 Wh/kg and the estimated cost is $11.6/kWh based on the weight of electrode materials. Considering the high performance, high safety, low operating temperature and low cost of raw materials, this novel type of molten-electrode battery system opens up new opportunities for stationary energy storage.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 1<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ensm.2019.07.027" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1582223" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1016/j.ensm.2019.07.027</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/pages/servlets/purl/1582223" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1582223" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="5" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1504809-effect-metallic-li-corrosion-behavior-inconel-molten-licl-li2o-li" itemprop="url">Effect of Metallic Li on the Corrosion Behavior of Inconel 625 in Molten LiCl-Li<sub>2</sub>O-Li</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Phillips, William</span> ; <span class="author">Karmiol, Zachary</span> ; <span class="author">Chidambaram, Dev</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Journal of the Electrochemical Society</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">The corrosion behavior of Inconel 625 in molten LiCl solutions maintained at 650°C and containing various quantities of Li<sub>2</sub>O and metallic Li was studied for possible application in the electroreduction of used oxide-based nuclear fuel. This study focusses on the morphological and elemental changes on the surface of the samples with an emphasis on cross-sectional analyses conducted using focused ion beam microscopy. In the absence of metallic Li, a stable oxide film is formed that limits the corrosion of the base material to 0.07mm/year. However, in the presence of metallic Li, the formation of this film is impeded, resulting in<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> dealloying of the base material and the formation of a highly porous microstructure composed primarily of Ni.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 1<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1149/2.0201906jes" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1504809" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="PA" >10.1149/2.0201906jes</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="6" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/428164-room-temperature-inorganic-quasi-molten-salts-alkali-metal-electrolytes" itemprop="url">Room temperature inorganic ``quasi-molten salts`` as alkali-metal electrolytes</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Xu, K</span> ; <span class="author">Zhang, S</span> ; <span class="author">Angell, C A</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Journal of the Electrochemical Society</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Room temperature inorganic liquids of high ionic conductivity have been prepared by reacting Lewis acid AlCl with sulfonyl chlorides. The mechanism is not clear at this time since a crystal structure study of the 1:1 complex with CH{sub 3}SO{sub 2}Cl (T{sub m} = 30 C) is not consistent with a simple chloride transfer to create AlClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} anions. The liquid is in a state somewhere between ionic and molecular. A new term quasi-molten salt is adopted to describe this state. A comparably conducting liquid can be made using BCL{sub 3} in place of AlCl{sub 3}. Unlike their organic counterparts<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> based on ammonium cations (e.g., pyridinium or imidazolium) which reduce in the presence of alkali metals, this inorganic class of cation shows great stability against electrochemical reduction (ca. {minus}1.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li), with the useful consequence that reversible lithium and sodium metal deposition/stripping can be supported. The electrochemical window for these quasi-salts with AlCl{sub 3} ranges up to 5.0 V, and their room temperature conductivities exceed 10{sup {minus}4} S/cm. They dissolve lithium and sodium tetrachloroaluminates up to mole fraction {approximately} 0.6 at 100 C and intermediate compositions are permanently stable at ambient. The resultant lithium or sodium salt solutions exhibit electrochemical windows of 4.5--5.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li or Na{sup +}/Na and show room temperature conductivities of 10{sup {minus}3.0}--10{sup {minus}2.5} S/cm. In preliminary charge/discharge tests, the cell Li/``quasi-ionic liquid electrolyte``/Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed a discharge capacity of ca. 110 mAh/(g of cathode) and sustained 80% of the initial capacity after 60 cycles, indicating that these quasi-molten salt-based electrolytes are promising candidates for alkali-metal batteries.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1149/1.1837251" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="428164" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >10.1149/1.1837251</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> </ul> </aside> </div> </section> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a class="tab-nav disabled" data-tab="related" style="color: #636c72 !important; opacity: 1;"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> Similar Records</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </section> </div></div> </div> </div> </section> <footer class="" style="background-color:#f9f9f9; /* padding-top: 0.5rem; */"> <div class="footer-minor"> <div class="container"> <hr class="footer-separator" /> <div class="text-center" style="margin-top:1.25rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list" id="footer-org-menu"> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://energy.gov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-us-doe-min" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://www.energy.gov/science/office-science" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-office-of-science-min" alt="Office of Science" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="/"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-osti-min" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" /> </a> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="text-center small" style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:2.0rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/disclaim" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-institution"></span> Website Policies <span class="hidden-xs">/ Important Links</span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/pages/contact" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-comments-o"></span> Contact Us</a></li> <li class="d-block d-md-none"></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-facebook" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://twitter.com/OSTIgov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-twitter" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-youtube-play" style=""></span></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </footer> <link href="/pages/css/pages.fonts.200713.1731.css" rel="stylesheet"> <script src="/pages/js/pages.200713.1731.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/pages.biblio.200713.1731.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/lity.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script async type="text/javascript" src="/pages/js/Universal-Federated-Analytics-Min.js?agency=DOE" id="_fed_an_ua_tag"></script><noscript></noscript> </body> <!-- DOE PAGES v.200713.1731 --> </html>