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Title: Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. II. Composition implications

Abstract

Using the data taken at the Pierre Auger Observatory between December 2004 and December 2012, we have examined the implications of the distributions of depths of atmospheric shower maximum (Xmax), using a hybrid technique, for composition and hadronic interaction models. We do this by fitting the distributions with predictions from a variety of hadronic interaction models for variations in the composition of the primary cosmic rays and examining the quality of the fit. Regardless of what interaction model is assumed, we find that our data are not well described by a mix of protons and iron nuclei over most of the energy range. Acceptable fits can be obtained when intermediate masses are included, and when this is done consistent results for the proton and iron-nuclei contributions can be found using the available models. We observe a strong energy dependence of the resulting proton fractions, and find no support from any of the models for a significant contribution from iron nuclei. However, we also observe a significant disagreement between the models with respect to the relative contributions of the intermediate components.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
Pierre Auger Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1304782
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1214418
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1409.5083; FERMILAB-PUB-14-347-AD-AE-CD-TD
Journal ID: ISSN 1550-7998; 1317628
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; FR02-04ER41300; FG02-99ER41107
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review. D, Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 1550-7998
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Aab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Ahn, E. J., Al Samarai, I., Albuquerque, I. F. M., Allekotte, I., Allen, J., Allison, P., Almela, A., Alvarez Castillo, J., Alvarez-Muñiz, J., Alves Batista, R., Ambrosio, M., Aminaei, A., Anchordoqui, L., Andringa, S., Aramo, C., Aranda, V. M., Arqueros, F., Asorey, H., Assis, P., Aublin, J., Ave, M., Avenier, M., Avila, G., Awal, N., Badescu, A. M., Barber, K. B., Bäuml, J., Baus, C., Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. H., Bellido, J. A., Berat, C., Bertania, M. E., Bertou, X., Biermann, P. L., Billoir, P., Blaess, S., Blanco, M., Bleve, C., Blümer, H., Boháčová, M., Boncioli, D., Bonifazi, C., Bonino, R., Borodai, N., Brack, J., Brancus, I., Bridgeman, A., Brogueira, P., Brown, W. C., Buchholz, P., Bueno, A., Buitink, S., Buscemi, M., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Caccianiga, B., Caccianiga, L., Candusso, M., Caramete, L., Caruso, R., Castellina, A., Cataldi, G., Cazon, L., Cester, R., Chavez, A. G., Chiavassa, A., Chinellato, J. A., Chudoba, J., Cilmo, M., Clay, R. W., Cocciolo, G., Colalillo, R., Coleman, A., Collica, L., Coluccia, M. R., Conceição, R., Contreras, F., Cooper, M. J., Cordier, A., Coutu, S., Covault, C. E., Cronin, J., Curutiu, A., Dallier, R., Daniel, B., Dasso, S., Daumiller, K., Dawson, B. R., de Almeida, R. M., De Domenico, M., de Jong, S. J., de Mello Neto, J. R. T., De Mitri, I., de Oliveira, J., de Souza, V., del Peral, L., Deligny, O., Dembinski, H., Dhital, N., Di Giulio, C., Di Matteo, A., Diaz, J. C., Díaz Castro, M. L., Diogo, F., Dobrigkeit, C., Docters, W., D’Olivo, J. C., Dorofeev, A., Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q., Dova, M. T., Ebr, J., Engel, R., Erdmann, M., Erfani, M., Escobar, C. O., Espadanal, J., Etchegoyen, A., Facal San Luis, P., Falcke, H., Fang, K., Farrar, G., Fauth, A. C., Fazzini, N., Ferguson, A. P., Fernandes, M., Fick, B., Figueira, J. M., Filevich, A., Filipčič, A., Fox, B. D., Fratu, O., Fröhlich, U., Fuchs, B., Fuji, T., Gaior, R., García, B., Garcia Roca, S. T., Garcia-Gamez, D., Garcia-Pinto, D., Garilli, G., Gascon Bravo, A., Gate, F., Gemmeke, H., Ghia, P. L., Giaccari, U., Giammarchi, M., Giller, M., Glaser, C., Glass, H., Gómez Berisso, M., Gómez Vitale, P. F., Gonçalves, P., Gonzalez, J. G., González, N., Gookin, B., Gordon, J., Gorgi, A., Gorham, P., Gouffon, P., Grebe, S., Griffith, N., Grillo, A. F., Grubb, T. D., Guarino, F., Guedes, G. P., Hampel, M. R., Hansen, P., Harari, D., Harrison, T. A., Hartmann, S., Harton, J. L., Haungs, A., Hebbeker, T., Heck, D., Heimann, P., Herve, A. E., Hill, G. C., Hojvat, C., Hollon, N., Holt, E., Homola, P., Hörandel, J. R., Horvath, P., Hrabovský, M., Huber, D., Huege, T., Insolia, A., Isar, P. G., Jandt, I., Jansen, S., Jarne, C., Josebachuili, M., Kääpä, A., Kambeitz, O., Kampert, K. H., Kasper, P., Katkov, I., Kégl, B., Keilhauer, B., Keivani, A., Kemp, E., Kieckhafer, R. M., Klages, H. O., Kleifges, M., Kleinfeller, J., Krause, R., Krohm, N., Krömer, O., Kruppke-Hansen, D., Kuempel, D., Kunka, N., LaHurd, D., Latronico, L., Lauer, R., Lauscher, M., Lautridou, P., Le Coz, S., Leão, M. S. A. B., Lebrun, D., Lebrun, P., Leigui de Oliveira, M. A., Letessier-Selvon, A., Lhenry-Yvon, I., Link, K., López, R., Lopez Agüera, A., Louedec, K., Lozano Bahilo, J., Lu, L., Lucero, A., Ludwig, M., Malacari, M., Maldera, S., Mallamaci, M., Maller, J., Mandat, D., Mantsch, P., Mariazzi, A. G., Marin, V., Mariş, I. C., Marsella, G., Martello, D., Martin, L., Martinez, H., Martínez Bravo, O., Martraire, D., Masías Meza, J. J., Mathes, H. J., Mathys, S., Matthews, J., Matthews, J. A. J., Matthiae, G., Maurel, D., Maurizio, D., Mayotte, E., Mazur, P. O., Medina, C., Medina-Tanco, G., Meissner, R., Melissas, M., Melo, D., Menshikov, A., Messina, S., Meyhandan, R., Mićanović, S., Micheletti, M. I., Middendorf, L., Minaya, I. A., Miramonti, L., Mitrica, B., Molina-Bueno, L., Mollerach, S., Monasor, M., Monnier Ragaigne, D., Montanet, F., Morello, C., Mostafá, M., Moura, C. A., Muller, M. A., Müller, G., Müller, S., Münchmeyer, M., Mussa, R., Navarra, G., Navas, S., Necesal, P., Nellen, L., Nelles, A., Neuser, J., Nguyen, P., Niechciol, M., Niemietz, L., Niggemann, T., Nitz, D., Nosek, D., Novotny, V., Nožka, L., Ochilo, L., Olinto, A., Oliveira, M., Pacheco, N., Pakk Selmi-Dei, D., Palatka, M., Pallotta, J., Palmieri, N., Papenbreer, P., Parente, G., Parra, A., Paul, T., Pech, M., Pȩkala, J., Pelayo, R., Pepe, I. M., Perrone, L., Petermann, E., Peters, C., Petrera, S., Petrov, Y., Phuntsok, J., Piegaia, R., Pierog, T., Pieroni, P., Pimenta, M., Pirronello, V., Platino, M., Plum, M., Porcelli, A., Porowski, C., Prado, R. R., Privitera, P., Prouza, M., Purrello, V., Quel, E. J., Querchfeld, S., Quinn, S., Rautenberg, J., Ravel, O., Ravignani, D., Revenu, B., Ridky, J., Riggi, S., Risse, M., Ristori, P., Rizi, V., Rodrigues de Carvalho, W., Rodriguez Cabo, I., Rodriguez Fernandez, G., Rodriguez Rojo, J., Rodríguez-Frías, M. D., Rogozin, D., Ros, G., Rosado, J., Rossler, T., Roth, M., Roulet, E., Rovero, A. C., Saffi, S. J., Saftoiu, A., Salamida, F., Salazar, H., Saleh, A., Salesa Greus, F., Salina, G., Sánchez, F., Sanchez-Lucas, P., Santo, C. E., Santos, E., Santos, E. M., Sarazin, F., Sarkar, B., Sarmento, R., Sato, R., Scharf, N., Scherini, V., Schieler, H., Schiffer, P., Schmidt, D., Scholten, O., Schoorlemmer, H., Schovánek, P., Schulz, A., Schulz, J., Schumacher, J., Sciutto, S. J., Segreto, A., Settimo, M., Shadkam, A., Shellard, R. C., Sidelnik, I., Sigl, G., Sima, O., Śmiałkowski, A., Šmída, R., Snow, G. R., Sommers, P., Sorokin, J., Squartini, R., Srivastava, Y. N., Stanič, S., Stapleton, J., Stasielak, J., Stephan, M., Stutz, A., Suarez, F., Suomijärvi, T., Supanitsky, A. D., Sutherland, M. S., Swain, J., Szadkowski, Z., Szuba, M., Taborda, O. A., Tapia, A., Tartare, M., Tepe, A., Theodoro, V. M., Timmermans, C., Todero Peixoto, C. J., Toma, G., Tomankova, L., Tomé, B., Tonachini, A., Torralba Elipe, G., Torres Machado, D., Travnicek, P., Trovato, E., Tueros, M., Ulrich, R., Unger, M., Urban, M., Valdés Galicia, J. F., Valiño, I., Valore, L., van Aar, G., van Bodegom, P., van den Berg, A. M., van Velzen, S., van Vliet, A., Varela, E., Vargas Cárdenas, B., Varner, G., Vázquez, J. R., Vázquez, R. A., Veberič, D., Verzi, V., Vicha, J., Videla, M., Villaseñor, L., Vlcek, B., Vorobiov, S., Wahlberg, H., Wainberg, O., Walz, D., Watson, A. A., Weber, M., Weidenhaupt, K., Weindl, A., Werner, F., Widom, A., Wiencke, L., Wilczyńska, B., Wilczyński, H., Will, M., Williams, C., Winchen, T., Wittkowski, D., Wundheiler, B., Wykes, S., Yamamoto, T., Yapici, T., Yuan, G., Yushkov, A., Zamorano, B., Zas, E., Zavrtanik, D., Zavrtanik, M., Zaw, I., Zepeda, A., Zhou, J., Zhu, Y., Zimbres Silva, M., Ziolkowski, M., and Zuccarello, F. Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. II. Composition implications. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.90.122006.
Aab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Ahn, E. J., Al Samarai, I., Albuquerque, I. F. M., Allekotte, I., Allen, J., Allison, P., Almela, A., Alvarez Castillo, J., Alvarez-Muñiz, J., Alves Batista, R., Ambrosio, M., Aminaei, A., Anchordoqui, L., Andringa, S., Aramo, C., Aranda, V. M., Arqueros, F., Asorey, H., Assis, P., Aublin, J., Ave, M., Avenier, M., Avila, G., Awal, N., Badescu, A. M., Barber, K. B., Bäuml, J., Baus, C., Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. H., Bellido, J. A., Berat, C., Bertania, M. E., Bertou, X., Biermann, P. L., Billoir, P., Blaess, S., Blanco, M., Bleve, C., Blümer, H., Boháčová, M., Boncioli, D., Bonifazi, C., Bonino, R., Borodai, N., Brack, J., Brancus, I., Bridgeman, A., Brogueira, P., Brown, W. C., Buchholz, P., Bueno, A., Buitink, S., Buscemi, M., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Caccianiga, B., Caccianiga, L., Candusso, M., Caramete, L., Caruso, R., Castellina, A., Cataldi, G., Cazon, L., Cester, R., Chavez, A. G., Chiavassa, A., Chinellato, J. A., Chudoba, J., Cilmo, M., Clay, R. W., Cocciolo, G., Colalillo, R., Coleman, A., Collica, L., Coluccia, M. R., Conceição, R., Contreras, F., Cooper, M. J., Cordier, A., Coutu, S., Covault, C. E., Cronin, J., Curutiu, A., Dallier, R., Daniel, B., Dasso, S., Daumiller, K., Dawson, B. R., de Almeida, R. M., De Domenico, M., de Jong, S. J., de Mello Neto, J. R. T., De Mitri, I., de Oliveira, J., de Souza, V., del Peral, L., Deligny, O., Dembinski, H., Dhital, N., Di Giulio, C., Di Matteo, A., Diaz, J. C., Díaz Castro, M. L., Diogo, F., Dobrigkeit, C., Docters, W., D’Olivo, J. C., Dorofeev, A., Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q., Dova, M. T., Ebr, J., Engel, R., Erdmann, M., Erfani, M., Escobar, C. O., Espadanal, J., Etchegoyen, A., Facal San Luis, P., Falcke, H., Fang, K., Farrar, G., Fauth, A. C., Fazzini, N., Ferguson, A. P., Fernandes, M., Fick, B., Figueira, J. M., Filevich, A., Filipčič, A., Fox, B. D., Fratu, O., Fröhlich, U., Fuchs, B., Fuji, T., Gaior, R., García, B., Garcia Roca, S. T., Garcia-Gamez, D., Garcia-Pinto, D., Garilli, G., Gascon Bravo, A., Gate, F., Gemmeke, H., Ghia, P. L., Giaccari, U., Giammarchi, M., Giller, M., Glaser, C., Glass, H., Gómez Berisso, M., Gómez Vitale, P. F., Gonçalves, P., Gonzalez, J. G., González, N., Gookin, B., Gordon, J., Gorgi, A., Gorham, P., Gouffon, P., Grebe, S., Griffith, N., Grillo, A. F., Grubb, T. D., Guarino, F., Guedes, G. P., Hampel, M. R., Hansen, P., Harari, D., Harrison, T. A., Hartmann, S., Harton, J. L., Haungs, A., Hebbeker, T., Heck, D., Heimann, P., Herve, A. E., Hill, G. C., Hojvat, C., Hollon, N., Holt, E., Homola, P., Hörandel, J. R., Horvath, P., Hrabovský, M., Huber, D., Huege, T., Insolia, A., Isar, P. G., Jandt, I., Jansen, S., Jarne, C., Josebachuili, M., Kääpä, A., Kambeitz, O., Kampert, K. H., Kasper, P., Katkov, I., Kégl, B., Keilhauer, B., Keivani, A., Kemp, E., Kieckhafer, R. M., Klages, H. O., Kleifges, M., Kleinfeller, J., Krause, R., Krohm, N., Krömer, O., Kruppke-Hansen, D., Kuempel, D., Kunka, N., LaHurd, D., Latronico, L., Lauer, R., Lauscher, M., Lautridou, P., Le Coz, S., Leão, M. S. A. B., Lebrun, D., Lebrun, P., Leigui de Oliveira, M. A., Letessier-Selvon, A., Lhenry-Yvon, I., Link, K., López, R., Lopez Agüera, A., Louedec, K., Lozano Bahilo, J., Lu, L., Lucero, A., Ludwig, M., Malacari, M., Maldera, S., Mallamaci, M., Maller, J., Mandat, D., Mantsch, P., Mariazzi, A. G., Marin, V., Mariş, I. C., Marsella, G., Martello, D., Martin, L., Martinez, H., Martínez Bravo, O., Martraire, D., Masías Meza, J. J., Mathes, H. J., Mathys, S., Matthews, J., Matthews, J. A. J., Matthiae, G., Maurel, D., Maurizio, D., Mayotte, E., Mazur, P. O., Medina, C., Medina-Tanco, G., Meissner, R., Melissas, M., Melo, D., Menshikov, A., Messina, S., Meyhandan, R., Mićanović, S., Micheletti, M. I., Middendorf, L., Minaya, I. A., Miramonti, L., Mitrica, B., Molina-Bueno, L., Mollerach, S., Monasor, M., Monnier Ragaigne, D., Montanet, F., Morello, C., Mostafá, M., Moura, C. A., Muller, M. A., Müller, G., Müller, S., Münchmeyer, M., Mussa, R., Navarra, G., Navas, S., Necesal, P., Nellen, L., Nelles, A., Neuser, J., Nguyen, P., Niechciol, M., Niemietz, L., Niggemann, T., Nitz, D., Nosek, D., Novotny, V., Nožka, L., Ochilo, L., Olinto, A., Oliveira, M., Pacheco, N., Pakk Selmi-Dei, D., Palatka, M., Pallotta, J., Palmieri, N., Papenbreer, P., Parente, G., Parra, A., Paul, T., Pech, M., Pȩkala, J., Pelayo, R., Pepe, I. M., Perrone, L., Petermann, E., Peters, C., Petrera, S., Petrov, Y., Phuntsok, J., Piegaia, R., Pierog, T., Pieroni, P., Pimenta, M., Pirronello, V., Platino, M., Plum, M., Porcelli, A., Porowski, C., Prado, R. R., Privitera, P., Prouza, M., Purrello, V., Quel, E. J., Querchfeld, S., Quinn, S., Rautenberg, J., Ravel, O., Ravignani, D., Revenu, B., Ridky, J., Riggi, S., Risse, M., Ristori, P., Rizi, V., Rodrigues de Carvalho, W., Rodriguez Cabo, I., Rodriguez Fernandez, G., Rodriguez Rojo, J., Rodríguez-Frías, M. D., Rogozin, D., Ros, G., Rosado, J., Rossler, T., Roth, M., Roulet, E., Rovero, A. C., Saffi, S. J., Saftoiu, A., Salamida, F., Salazar, H., Saleh, A., Salesa Greus, F., Salina, G., Sánchez, F., Sanchez-Lucas, P., Santo, C. E., Santos, E., Santos, E. M., Sarazin, F., Sarkar, B., Sarmento, R., Sato, R., Scharf, N., Scherini, V., Schieler, H., Schiffer, P., Schmidt, D., Scholten, O., Schoorlemmer, H., Schovánek, P., Schulz, A., Schulz, J., Schumacher, J., Sciutto, S. J., Segreto, A., Settimo, M., Shadkam, A., Shellard, R. C., Sidelnik, I., Sigl, G., Sima, O., Śmiałkowski, A., Šmída, R., Snow, G. R., Sommers, P., Sorokin, J., Squartini, R., Srivastava, Y. N., Stanič, S., Stapleton, J., Stasielak, J., Stephan, M., Stutz, A., Suarez, F., Suomijärvi, T., Supanitsky, A. D., Sutherland, M. S., Swain, J., Szadkowski, Z., Szuba, M., Taborda, O. A., Tapia, A., Tartare, M., Tepe, A., Theodoro, V. M., Timmermans, C., Todero Peixoto, C. J., Toma, G., Tomankova, L., Tomé, B., Tonachini, A., Torralba Elipe, G., Torres Machado, D., Travnicek, P., Trovato, E., Tueros, M., Ulrich, R., Unger, M., Urban, M., Valdés Galicia, J. F., Valiño, I., Valore, L., van Aar, G., van Bodegom, P., van den Berg, A. M., van Velzen, S., van Vliet, A., Varela, E., Vargas Cárdenas, B., Varner, G., Vázquez, J. R., Vázquez, R. A., Veberič, D., Verzi, V., Vicha, J., Videla, M., Villaseñor, L., Vlcek, B., Vorobiov, S., Wahlberg, H., Wainberg, O., Walz, D., Watson, A. A., Weber, M., Weidenhaupt, K., Weindl, A., Werner, F., Widom, A., Wiencke, L., Wilczyńska, B., Wilczyński, H., Will, M., Williams, C., Winchen, T., Wittkowski, D., Wundheiler, B., Wykes, S., Yamamoto, T., Yapici, T., Yuan, G., Yushkov, A., Zamorano, B., Zas, E., Zavrtanik, D., Zavrtanik, M., Zaw, I., Zepeda, A., Zhou, J., Zhu, Y., Zimbres Silva, M., Ziolkowski, M., & Zuccarello, F. Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. II. Composition implications. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.90.122006.
Aab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Ahn, E. J., Al Samarai, I., Albuquerque, I. F. M., Allekotte, I., Allen, J., Allison, P., Almela, A., Alvarez Castillo, J., Alvarez-Muñiz, J., Alves Batista, R., Ambrosio, M., Aminaei, A., Anchordoqui, L., Andringa, S., Aramo, C., Aranda, V. M., Arqueros, F., Asorey, H., Assis, P., Aublin, J., Ave, M., Avenier, M., Avila, G., Awal, N., Badescu, A. M., Barber, K. B., Bäuml, J., Baus, C., Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. H., Bellido, J. A., Berat, C., Bertania, M. E., Bertou, X., Biermann, P. L., Billoir, P., Blaess, S., Blanco, M., Bleve, C., Blümer, H., Boháčová, M., Boncioli, D., Bonifazi, C., Bonino, R., Borodai, N., Brack, J., Brancus, I., Bridgeman, A., Brogueira, P., Brown, W. C., Buchholz, P., Bueno, A., Buitink, S., Buscemi, M., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Caccianiga, B., Caccianiga, L., Candusso, M., Caramete, L., Caruso, R., Castellina, A., Cataldi, G., Cazon, L., Cester, R., Chavez, A. G., Chiavassa, A., Chinellato, J. A., Chudoba, J., Cilmo, M., Clay, R. W., Cocciolo, G., Colalillo, R., Coleman, A., Collica, L., Coluccia, M. R., Conceição, R., Contreras, F., Cooper, M. J., Cordier, A., Coutu, S., Covault, C. E., Cronin, J., Curutiu, A., Dallier, R., Daniel, B., Dasso, S., Daumiller, K., Dawson, B. R., de Almeida, R. M., De Domenico, M., de Jong, S. J., de Mello Neto, J. R. T., De Mitri, I., de Oliveira, J., de Souza, V., del Peral, L., Deligny, O., Dembinski, H., Dhital, N., Di Giulio, C., Di Matteo, A., Diaz, J. C., Díaz Castro, M. L., Diogo, F., Dobrigkeit, C., Docters, W., D’Olivo, J. C., Dorofeev, A., Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q., Dova, M. T., Ebr, J., Engel, R., Erdmann, M., Erfani, M., Escobar, C. O., Espadanal, J., Etchegoyen, A., Facal San Luis, P., Falcke, H., Fang, K., Farrar, G., Fauth, A. C., Fazzini, N., Ferguson, A. P., Fernandes, M., Fick, B., Figueira, J. M., Filevich, A., Filipčič, A., Fox, B. D., Fratu, O., Fröhlich, U., Fuchs, B., Fuji, T., Gaior, R., García, B., Garcia Roca, S. T., Garcia-Gamez, D., Garcia-Pinto, D., Garilli, G., Gascon Bravo, A., Gate, F., Gemmeke, H., Ghia, P. L., Giaccari, U., Giammarchi, M., Giller, M., Glaser, C., Glass, H., Gómez Berisso, M., Gómez Vitale, P. F., Gonçalves, P., Gonzalez, J. G., González, N., Gookin, B., Gordon, J., Gorgi, A., Gorham, P., Gouffon, P., Grebe, S., Griffith, N., Grillo, A. F., Grubb, T. D., Guarino, F., Guedes, G. P., Hampel, M. R., Hansen, P., Harari, D., Harrison, T. A., Hartmann, S., Harton, J. L., Haungs, A., Hebbeker, T., Heck, D., Heimann, P., Herve, A. E., Hill, G. C., Hojvat, C., Hollon, N., Holt, E., Homola, P., Hörandel, J. R., Horvath, P., Hrabovský, M., Huber, D., Huege, T., Insolia, A., Isar, P. G., Jandt, I., Jansen, S., Jarne, C., Josebachuili, M., Kääpä, A., Kambeitz, O., Kampert, K. H., Kasper, P., Katkov, I., Kégl, B., Keilhauer, B., Keivani, A., Kemp, E., Kieckhafer, R. M., Klages, H. O., Kleifges, M., Kleinfeller, J., Krause, R., Krohm, N., Krömer, O., Kruppke-Hansen, D., Kuempel, D., Kunka, N., LaHurd, D., Latronico, L., Lauer, R., Lauscher, M., Lautridou, P., Le Coz, S., Leão, M. S. A. B., Lebrun, D., Lebrun, P., Leigui de Oliveira, M. A., Letessier-Selvon, A., Lhenry-Yvon, I., Link, K., López, R., Lopez Agüera, A., Louedec, K., Lozano Bahilo, J., Lu, L., Lucero, A., Ludwig, M., Malacari, M., Maldera, S., Mallamaci, M., Maller, J., Mandat, D., Mantsch, P., Mariazzi, A. G., Marin, V., Mariş, I. C., Marsella, G., Martello, D., Martin, L., Martinez, H., Martínez Bravo, O., Martraire, D., Masías Meza, J. J., Mathes, H. J., Mathys, S., Matthews, J., Matthews, J. A. J., Matthiae, G., Maurel, D., Maurizio, D., Mayotte, E., Mazur, P. O., Medina, C., Medina-Tanco, G., Meissner, R., Melissas, M., Melo, D., Menshikov, A., Messina, S., Meyhandan, R., Mićanović, S., Micheletti, M. I., Middendorf, L., Minaya, I. A., Miramonti, L., Mitrica, B., Molina-Bueno, L., Mollerach, S., Monasor, M., Monnier Ragaigne, D., Montanet, F., Morello, C., Mostafá, M., Moura, C. A., Muller, M. A., Müller, G., Müller, S., Münchmeyer, M., Mussa, R., Navarra, G., Navas, S., Necesal, P., Nellen, L., Nelles, A., Neuser, J., Nguyen, P., Niechciol, M., Niemietz, L., Niggemann, T., Nitz, D., Nosek, D., Novotny, V., Nožka, L., Ochilo, L., Olinto, A., Oliveira, M., Pacheco, N., Pakk Selmi-Dei, D., Palatka, M., Pallotta, J., Palmieri, N., Papenbreer, P., Parente, G., Parra, A., Paul, T., Pech, M., Pȩkala, J., Pelayo, R., Pepe, I. M., Perrone, L., Petermann, E., Peters, C., Petrera, S., Petrov, Y., Phuntsok, J., Piegaia, R., Pierog, T., Pieroni, P., Pimenta, M., Pirronello, V., Platino, M., Plum, M., Porcelli, A., Porowski, C., Prado, R. R., Privitera, P., Prouza, M., Purrello, V., Quel, E. J., Querchfeld, S., Quinn, S., Rautenberg, J., Ravel, O., Ravignani, D., Revenu, B., Ridky, J., Riggi, S., Risse, M., Ristori, P., Rizi, V., Rodrigues de Carvalho, W., Rodriguez Cabo, I., Rodriguez Fernandez, G., Rodriguez Rojo, J., Rodríguez-Frías, M. D., Rogozin, D., Ros, G., Rosado, J., Rossler, T., Roth, M., Roulet, E., Rovero, A. C., Saffi, S. J., Saftoiu, A., Salamida, F., Salazar, H., Saleh, A., Salesa Greus, F., Salina, G., Sánchez, F., Sanchez-Lucas, P., Santo, C. E., Santos, E., Santos, E. M., Sarazin, F., Sarkar, B., Sarmento, R., Sato, R., Scharf, N., Scherini, V., Schieler, H., Schiffer, P., Schmidt, D., Scholten, O., Schoorlemmer, H., Schovánek, P., Schulz, A., Schulz, J., Schumacher, J., Sciutto, S. J., Segreto, A., Settimo, M., Shadkam, A., Shellard, R. C., Sidelnik, I., Sigl, G., Sima, O., Śmiałkowski, A., Šmída, R., Snow, G. R., Sommers, P., Sorokin, J., Squartini, R., Srivastava, Y. N., Stanič, S., Stapleton, J., Stasielak, J., Stephan, M., Stutz, A., Suarez, F., Suomijärvi, T., Supanitsky, A. D., Sutherland, M. S., Swain, J., Szadkowski, Z., Szuba, M., Taborda, O. A., Tapia, A., Tartare, M., Tepe, A., Theodoro, V. M., Timmermans, C., Todero Peixoto, C. J., Toma, G., Tomankova, L., Tomé, B., Tonachini, A., Torralba Elipe, G., Torres Machado, D., Travnicek, P., Trovato, E., Tueros, M., Ulrich, R., Unger, M., Urban, M., Valdés Galicia, J. F., Valiño, I., Valore, L., van Aar, G., van Bodegom, P., van den Berg, A. M., van Velzen, S., van Vliet, A., Varela, E., Vargas Cárdenas, B., Varner, G., Vázquez, J. R., Vázquez, R. A., Veberič, D., Verzi, V., Vicha, J., Videla, M., Villaseñor, L., Vlcek, B., Vorobiov, S., Wahlberg, H., Wainberg, O., Walz, D., Watson, A. A., Weber, M., Weidenhaupt, K., Weindl, A., Werner, F., Widom, A., Wiencke, L., Wilczyńska, B., Wilczyński, H., Will, M., Williams, C., Winchen, T., Wittkowski, D., Wundheiler, B., Wykes, S., Yamamoto, T., Yapici, T., Yuan, G., Yushkov, A., Zamorano, B., Zas, E., Zavrtanik, D., Zavrtanik, M., Zaw, I., Zepeda, A., Zhou, J., Zhu, Y., Zimbres Silva, M., Ziolkowski, M., and Zuccarello, F. Mon . "Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. II. Composition implications". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.90.122006. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1304782.
@article{osti_1304782,
title = {Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. II. Composition implications},
author = {Aab, A. and Abreu, P. and Aglietta, M. and Ahn, E. J. and Al Samarai, I. and Albuquerque, I. F. M. and Allekotte, I. and Allen, J. and Allison, P. and Almela, A. and Alvarez Castillo, J. and Alvarez-Muñiz, J. and Alves Batista, R. and Ambrosio, M. and Aminaei, A. and Anchordoqui, L. and Andringa, S. and Aramo, C. and Aranda, V. M. and Arqueros, F. and Asorey, H. and Assis, P. and Aublin, J. and Ave, M. and Avenier, M. and Avila, G. and Awal, N. and Badescu, A. M. and Barber, K. B. and Bäuml, J. and Baus, C. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker, K. H. and Bellido, J. A. and Berat, C. and Bertania, M. E. and Bertou, X. and Biermann, P. L. and Billoir, P. and Blaess, S. and Blanco, M. and Bleve, C. and Blümer, H. and Boháčová, M. and Boncioli, D. and Bonifazi, C. and Bonino, R. and Borodai, N. and Brack, J. and Brancus, I. and Bridgeman, A. and Brogueira, P. and Brown, W. C. and Buchholz, P. and Bueno, A. and Buitink, S. and Buscemi, M. and Caballero-Mora, K. S. and Caccianiga, B. and Caccianiga, L. and Candusso, M. and Caramete, L. and Caruso, R. and Castellina, A. and Cataldi, G. and Cazon, L. and Cester, R. and Chavez, A. G. and Chiavassa, A. and Chinellato, J. A. and Chudoba, J. and Cilmo, M. and Clay, R. W. and Cocciolo, G. and Colalillo, R. and Coleman, A. and Collica, L. and Coluccia, M. R. and Conceição, R. and Contreras, F. and Cooper, M. J. and Cordier, A. and Coutu, S. and Covault, C. E. and Cronin, J. and Curutiu, A. and Dallier, R. and Daniel, B. and Dasso, S. and Daumiller, K. and Dawson, B. R. and de Almeida, R. M. and De Domenico, M. and de Jong, S. J. and de Mello Neto, J. R. T. and De Mitri, I. and de Oliveira, J. and de Souza, V. and del Peral, L. and Deligny, O. and Dembinski, H. and Dhital, N. and Di Giulio, C. and Di Matteo, A. and Diaz, J. C. and Díaz Castro, M. L. and Diogo, F. and Dobrigkeit, C. and Docters, W. and D’Olivo, J. C. and Dorofeev, A. and Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q. and Dova, M. T. and Ebr, J. and Engel, R. and Erdmann, M. and Erfani, M. and Escobar, C. O. and Espadanal, J. and Etchegoyen, A. and Facal San Luis, P. and Falcke, H. and Fang, K. and Farrar, G. and Fauth, A. C. and Fazzini, N. and Ferguson, A. P. and Fernandes, M. and Fick, B. and Figueira, J. M. and Filevich, A. and Filipčič, A. and Fox, B. D. and Fratu, O. and Fröhlich, U. and Fuchs, B. and Fuji, T. and Gaior, R. and García, B. and Garcia Roca, S. T. and Garcia-Gamez, D. and Garcia-Pinto, D. and Garilli, G. and Gascon Bravo, A. and Gate, F. and Gemmeke, H. and Ghia, P. L. and Giaccari, U. and Giammarchi, M. and Giller, M. and Glaser, C. and Glass, H. and Gómez Berisso, M. and Gómez Vitale, P. F. and Gonçalves, P. and Gonzalez, J. G. and González, N. and Gookin, B. and Gordon, J. and Gorgi, A. and Gorham, P. and Gouffon, P. and Grebe, S. and Griffith, N. and Grillo, A. F. and Grubb, T. D. and Guarino, F. and Guedes, G. P. and Hampel, M. R. and Hansen, P. and Harari, D. and Harrison, T. A. and Hartmann, S. and Harton, J. L. and Haungs, A. and Hebbeker, T. and Heck, D. and Heimann, P. and Herve, A. E. and Hill, G. C. and Hojvat, C. and Hollon, N. and Holt, E. and Homola, P. and Hörandel, J. R. and Horvath, P. and Hrabovský, M. and Huber, D. and Huege, T. and Insolia, A. and Isar, P. G. and Jandt, I. and Jansen, S. and Jarne, C. and Josebachuili, M. and Kääpä, A. and Kambeitz, O. and Kampert, K. H. and Kasper, P. and Katkov, I. and Kégl, B. and Keilhauer, B. and Keivani, A. and Kemp, E. and Kieckhafer, R. M. and Klages, H. O. and Kleifges, M. and Kleinfeller, J. and Krause, R. and Krohm, N. and Krömer, O. and Kruppke-Hansen, D. and Kuempel, D. and Kunka, N. and LaHurd, D. and Latronico, L. and Lauer, R. and Lauscher, M. and Lautridou, P. and Le Coz, S. and Leão, M. S. A. B. and Lebrun, D. and Lebrun, P. and Leigui de Oliveira, M. A. and Letessier-Selvon, A. and Lhenry-Yvon, I. and Link, K. and López, R. and Lopez Agüera, A. and Louedec, K. and Lozano Bahilo, J. and Lu, L. and Lucero, A. and Ludwig, M. and Malacari, M. and Maldera, S. and Mallamaci, M. and Maller, J. and Mandat, D. and Mantsch, P. and Mariazzi, A. G. and Marin, V. and Mariş, I. C. and Marsella, G. and Martello, D. and Martin, L. and Martinez, H. and Martínez Bravo, O. and Martraire, D. and Masías Meza, J. J. and Mathes, H. J. and Mathys, S. and Matthews, J. and Matthews, J. A. J. and Matthiae, G. and Maurel, D. and Maurizio, D. and Mayotte, E. and Mazur, P. O. and Medina, C. and Medina-Tanco, G. and Meissner, R. and Melissas, M. and Melo, D. and Menshikov, A. and Messina, S. and Meyhandan, R. and Mićanović, S. and Micheletti, M. I. and Middendorf, L. and Minaya, I. A. and Miramonti, L. and Mitrica, B. and Molina-Bueno, L. and Mollerach, S. and Monasor, M. and Monnier Ragaigne, D. and Montanet, F. and Morello, C. and Mostafá, M. and Moura, C. A. and Muller, M. A. and Müller, G. and Müller, S. and Münchmeyer, M. and Mussa, R. and Navarra, G. and Navas, S. and Necesal, P. and Nellen, L. and Nelles, A. and Neuser, J. and Nguyen, P. and Niechciol, M. and Niemietz, L. and Niggemann, T. and Nitz, D. and Nosek, D. and Novotny, V. and Nožka, L. and Ochilo, L. and Olinto, A. and Oliveira, M. and Pacheco, N. and Pakk Selmi-Dei, D. and Palatka, M. and Pallotta, J. and Palmieri, N. and Papenbreer, P. and Parente, G. and Parra, A. and Paul, T. and Pech, M. and Pȩkala, J. and Pelayo, R. and Pepe, I. M. and Perrone, L. and Petermann, E. and Peters, C. and Petrera, S. and Petrov, Y. and Phuntsok, J. and Piegaia, R. and Pierog, T. and Pieroni, P. and Pimenta, M. and Pirronello, V. and Platino, M. and Plum, M. and Porcelli, A. and Porowski, C. and Prado, R. R. and Privitera, P. and Prouza, M. and Purrello, V. and Quel, E. J. and Querchfeld, S. and Quinn, S. and Rautenberg, J. and Ravel, O. and Ravignani, D. and Revenu, B. and Ridky, J. and Riggi, S. and Risse, M. and Ristori, P. and Rizi, V. and Rodrigues de Carvalho, W. and Rodriguez Cabo, I. and Rodriguez Fernandez, G. and Rodriguez Rojo, J. and Rodríguez-Frías, M. D. and Rogozin, D. and Ros, G. and Rosado, J. and Rossler, T. and Roth, M. and Roulet, E. and Rovero, A. C. and Saffi, S. J. and Saftoiu, A. and Salamida, F. and Salazar, H. and Saleh, A. and Salesa Greus, F. and Salina, G. and Sánchez, F. and Sanchez-Lucas, P. and Santo, C. E. and Santos, E. and Santos, E. M. and Sarazin, F. and Sarkar, B. and Sarmento, R. and Sato, R. and Scharf, N. and Scherini, V. and Schieler, H. and Schiffer, P. and Schmidt, D. and Scholten, O. and Schoorlemmer, H. and Schovánek, P. and Schulz, A. and Schulz, J. and Schumacher, J. and Sciutto, S. J. and Segreto, A. and Settimo, M. and Shadkam, A. and Shellard, R. C. and Sidelnik, I. and Sigl, G. and Sima, O. and Śmiałkowski, A. and Šmída, R. and Snow, G. R. and Sommers, P. and Sorokin, J. and Squartini, R. and Srivastava, Y. N. and Stanič, S. and Stapleton, J. and Stasielak, J. and Stephan, M. and Stutz, A. and Suarez, F. and Suomijärvi, T. and Supanitsky, A. D. and Sutherland, M. S. and Swain, J. and Szadkowski, Z. and Szuba, M. and Taborda, O. A. and Tapia, A. and Tartare, M. and Tepe, A. and Theodoro, V. M. and Timmermans, C. and Todero Peixoto, C. J. and Toma, G. and Tomankova, L. and Tomé, B. and Tonachini, A. and Torralba Elipe, G. and Torres Machado, D. and Travnicek, P. and Trovato, E. and Tueros, M. and Ulrich, R. and Unger, M. and Urban, M. and Valdés Galicia, J. F. and Valiño, I. and Valore, L. and van Aar, G. and van Bodegom, P. and van den Berg, A. M. and van Velzen, S. and van Vliet, A. and Varela, E. and Vargas Cárdenas, B. and Varner, G. and Vázquez, J. R. and Vázquez, R. A. and Veberič, D. and Verzi, V. and Vicha, J. and Videla, M. and Villaseñor, L. and Vlcek, B. and Vorobiov, S. and Wahlberg, H. and Wainberg, O. and Walz, D. and Watson, A. A. and Weber, M. and Weidenhaupt, K. and Weindl, A. and Werner, F. and Widom, A. and Wiencke, L. and Wilczyńska, B. and Wilczyński, H. and Will, M. and Williams, C. and Winchen, T. and Wittkowski, D. and Wundheiler, B. and Wykes, S. and Yamamoto, T. and Yapici, T. and Yuan, G. and Yushkov, A. and Zamorano, B. and Zas, E. and Zavrtanik, D. and Zavrtanik, M. and Zaw, I. and Zepeda, A. and Zhou, J. and Zhu, Y. and Zimbres Silva, M. and Ziolkowski, M. and Zuccarello, F.},
abstractNote = {Using the data taken at the Pierre Auger Observatory between December 2004 and December 2012, we have examined the implications of the distributions of depths of atmospheric shower maximum (Xmax), using a hybrid technique, for composition and hadronic interaction models. We do this by fitting the distributions with predictions from a variety of hadronic interaction models for variations in the composition of the primary cosmic rays and examining the quality of the fit. Regardless of what interaction model is assumed, we find that our data are not well described by a mix of protons and iron nuclei over most of the energy range. Acceptable fits can be obtained when intermediate masses are included, and when this is done consistent results for the proton and iron-nuclei contributions can be found using the available models. We observe a strong energy dependence of the resulting proton fractions, and find no support from any of the models for a significant contribution from iron nuclei. However, we also observe a significant disagreement between the models with respect to the relative contributions of the intermediate components.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.90.122006},
journal = {Physical Review. D, Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology},
number = 12,
volume = 90,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {12}
}

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