skip to main content


This content will become publicly available on July 18, 2017

Title: Levelized cost of energy for a Backward Bent Duct Buoy

The Reference Model Project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, was developed to provide publicly available technical and economic benchmarks for a variety of marine energy converters. The methodology to achieve these benchmarks is to develop public domain designs that incorporate power performance estimates, structural models, anchor and mooring designs, power conversion chain designs, and estimates of the operations and maintenance, installation, and environmental permitting required. The reference model designs are intended to be conservative, robust, and experimentally verified. The Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) presented in this paper is one of three wave energy conversion devices studied within the Reference Model Project. Furthermore, comprehensive modeling of the BBDB in a Northern California climate has enabled a full levelized cost of energy (LCOE) analysis to be completed on this device.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Boulder, CO (United States)
  3. Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)
  4. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Seattle, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2214-1669; PII: S2214166916300479
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
International Journal of Marine Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 16; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 2214-1669
Research Org:
Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE; Wind and Hydropower Technology Program (EE-2B); Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Country of Publication:
United States
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY; 13 HYDRO ENERGY wave energy converter; oscillating water column; levelized cost of energy; Backward Bent Duct Buoy; Reference Model Project; marine hydro-kinetic