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Title: Volcanic lightning and plume behavior reveal evolving hazards during the April 2015 eruption of Calbuco Volcano, Chile

Abstract

Soon after the onset of an eruption, model forecasts of ash dispersal are used to mitigate the hazards to aircraft, infrastructure, and communities downwind. However, it is a significant challenge to constrain the model inputs during an evolving eruption. Here we demonstrate that volcanic lightning may be used in tandem with satellite detection to recognize and quantify changes in eruption style and intensity. Using the eruption of Calbuco volcano in southern Chile on 22 and 23 April 2015, we investigate rates of umbrella cloud expansion from satellite observations, occurrence of lightning, and mapped characteristics of the fall deposits. Our remote sensing analysis gives a total erupted volume that is within uncertainty of the mapped volume (0.56 ± 0.28 km3 bulk). Furthermore, observations and volcanic plume modeling further suggest that electrical activity was enhanced both by ice formation in the ash clouds >10 km above sea level and development of a low-level charge layer from ground-hugging currents.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [5];  [5];  [4];  [6]
  1. U.S. Geological Survey, Vancouver, WA (United States)
  2. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  3. Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria, Temuco (Chile); Univ. de Chile, Santiago (Chile)
  4. Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria, Temuco (Chile)
  5. Servicio Geologico Minero Argentino, Rio Negro (Argentina)
  6. Univ. of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1296681
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-16-20649
Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geophysical Research Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES

Citation Formats

Van Eaton, Alexa R., Behnke, Sonja Ann, Amigo, Alvaro, Bertin, Daniel, Mastin, Larry G., Giacosa, Raul E., Gonzalez, Jeronimo, Valderrama, Oscar, and Fontijn, Karen. Volcanic lightning and plume behavior reveal evolving hazards during the April 2015 eruption of Calbuco Volcano, Chile. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1002/2016GL068076.
Van Eaton, Alexa R., Behnke, Sonja Ann, Amigo, Alvaro, Bertin, Daniel, Mastin, Larry G., Giacosa, Raul E., Gonzalez, Jeronimo, Valderrama, Oscar, & Fontijn, Karen. Volcanic lightning and plume behavior reveal evolving hazards during the April 2015 eruption of Calbuco Volcano, Chile. United States. doi:10.1002/2016GL068076.
Van Eaton, Alexa R., Behnke, Sonja Ann, Amigo, Alvaro, Bertin, Daniel, Mastin, Larry G., Giacosa, Raul E., Gonzalez, Jeronimo, Valderrama, Oscar, and Fontijn, Karen. Tue . "Volcanic lightning and plume behavior reveal evolving hazards during the April 2015 eruption of Calbuco Volcano, Chile". United States. doi:10.1002/2016GL068076. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1296681.
@article{osti_1296681,
title = {Volcanic lightning and plume behavior reveal evolving hazards during the April 2015 eruption of Calbuco Volcano, Chile},
author = {Van Eaton, Alexa R. and Behnke, Sonja Ann and Amigo, Alvaro and Bertin, Daniel and Mastin, Larry G. and Giacosa, Raul E. and Gonzalez, Jeronimo and Valderrama, Oscar and Fontijn, Karen},
abstractNote = {Soon after the onset of an eruption, model forecasts of ash dispersal are used to mitigate the hazards to aircraft, infrastructure, and communities downwind. However, it is a significant challenge to constrain the model inputs during an evolving eruption. Here we demonstrate that volcanic lightning may be used in tandem with satellite detection to recognize and quantify changes in eruption style and intensity. Using the eruption of Calbuco volcano in southern Chile on 22 and 23 April 2015, we investigate rates of umbrella cloud expansion from satellite observations, occurrence of lightning, and mapped characteristics of the fall deposits. Our remote sensing analysis gives a total erupted volume that is within uncertainty of the mapped volume (0.56 ± 0.28 km3 bulk). Furthermore, observations and volcanic plume modeling further suggest that electrical activity was enhanced both by ice formation in the ash clouds >10 km above sea level and development of a low-level charge layer from ground-hugging currents.},
doi = {10.1002/2016GL068076},
journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
number = 7,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {4}
}

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Cited by: 8 works
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Modeling Ash Dispersal From Future Eruptions of Taupo Supervolcano
    journal, July 2019

    • Barker, S. J.; Van Eaton, A. R.; Mastin, L. G.
    • Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
    • DOI: 10.1029/2018gc008152

    Old magma and a new, intrusive trigger: using diffusion chronometry to understand the rapid-onset Calbuco eruption, April 2015 (Southern Chile)
    journal, June 2019

    • Morgado, Eduardo; Morgan, Daniel J.; Castruccio, Angelo
    • Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 174, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00410-019-1596-0

    Old magma and a new, intrusive trigger: using diffusion chronometry to understand the rapid-onset Calbuco eruption, April 2015 (Southern Chile)
    journal, June 2019

    • Morgado, Eduardo; Morgan, Daniel J.; Castruccio, Angelo
    • Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 174, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00410-019-1596-0

    Modeling Ash Dispersal From Future Eruptions of Taupo Supervolcano
    journal, July 2019

    • Barker, S. J.; Van Eaton, A. R.; Mastin, L. G.
    • Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
    • DOI: 10.1029/2018gc008152