skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: The WACMOS-ET project – Part 1: Tower-scale evaluation of four remote-sensing-based evapotranspiration algorithms

Abstract

The WAter Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy – EvapoTranspiration (WACMOS-ET) project has compiled a forcing data set covering the period 2005–2007 that aims to maximize the exploitation of European Earth Observations data sets for evapotranspiration (ET) estimation. The data set was used to run four established ET algorithms: the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model (PT-JPL), the Penman–Monteith algorithm from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) evaporation product (PM-MOD), the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM). In addition, in situ meteorological data from 24 FLUXNET towers were used to force the models, with results from both forcing sets compared to tower-based flux observations. Model performance was assessed on several timescales using both sub-daily and daily forcings. The PT-JPL model and GLEAM provide the best performance for both satellite- and tower-based forcing as well as for the considered temporal resolutions. Simulations using the PM-MOD were mostly underestimated, while the SEBS performance was characterized by a systematic overestimation. In general, all four algorithms produce the best results in wet and moderately wet climate regimes. In dry regimes, the correlation and the absolute agreement with the reference tower ET observations were consistently lower. While ET derived with in situ forcing data agrees bestmore » with the tower measurements (R2 = 0.67), the agreement of the satellite-based ET estimates is only marginally lower (R2 = 0.58). Results also show similar model performance at daily and sub-daily (3-hourly) resolutions. Overall, our validation experiments against in situ measurements indicate that there is no single best-performing algorithm across all biome and forcing types. In conclusion, an extension of the evaluation to a larger selection of 85 towers (model inputs resampled to a common grid to facilitate global estimates) confirmed the original findings.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [1];  [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [7];  [5];  [8];  [1];  [9];  [10]
  1. Inst. for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)
  2. Estellus, Paris (France); LERMA, Paris Observatory, Paris (France)
  3. VU Univ. Amsterdam, Amsterdam (The Netherlands). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Ghent Univ., Ghent (Belgium). Lab. of Hydrology and Water Management
  4. Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany)
  5. California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Laboratory
  6. Ghent Univ., Ghent (Belgium). Lab. of Hydrology and Water Management
  7. King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia). Div. of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering
  8. Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States). Dept. of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences
  9. Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering
  10. European Space Agency (ESRIN), Frascati (Italy)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Inst. for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1288410
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-04ER63917; FG02-04ER63911
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (Online); Journal Volume: 20; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1607-7938
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union (EGU)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING; surface-energy-balance; era-interim reanalysis; global precipitation; soil-moisture; system sebs; heat-flux; data set; evaporation; products; microwave

Citation Formats

Michel, D., Jimenez, C., Miralles, D. G., Jung, M., Hirschi, M., Ershadi, A., Martens, B., McCabe, M. F., Fisher, J. B., Mu, Q., Seneviratne, S. I., Wood, E. F., and Fernandez-Prieto, D. The WACMOS-ET project – Part 1: Tower-scale evaluation of four remote-sensing-based evapotranspiration algorithms. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.5194/hess-20-803-2016.
Michel, D., Jimenez, C., Miralles, D. G., Jung, M., Hirschi, M., Ershadi, A., Martens, B., McCabe, M. F., Fisher, J. B., Mu, Q., Seneviratne, S. I., Wood, E. F., & Fernandez-Prieto, D. The WACMOS-ET project – Part 1: Tower-scale evaluation of four remote-sensing-based evapotranspiration algorithms. United States. doi:10.5194/hess-20-803-2016.
Michel, D., Jimenez, C., Miralles, D. G., Jung, M., Hirschi, M., Ershadi, A., Martens, B., McCabe, M. F., Fisher, J. B., Mu, Q., Seneviratne, S. I., Wood, E. F., and Fernandez-Prieto, D. Tue . "The WACMOS-ET project – Part 1: Tower-scale evaluation of four remote-sensing-based evapotranspiration algorithms". United States. doi:10.5194/hess-20-803-2016. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1288410.
@article{osti_1288410,
title = {The WACMOS-ET project – Part 1: Tower-scale evaluation of four remote-sensing-based evapotranspiration algorithms},
author = {Michel, D. and Jimenez, C. and Miralles, D. G. and Jung, M. and Hirschi, M. and Ershadi, A. and Martens, B. and McCabe, M. F. and Fisher, J. B. and Mu, Q. and Seneviratne, S. I. and Wood, E. F. and Fernandez-Prieto, D.},
abstractNote = {The WAter Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy – EvapoTranspiration (WACMOS-ET) project has compiled a forcing data set covering the period 2005–2007 that aims to maximize the exploitation of European Earth Observations data sets for evapotranspiration (ET) estimation. The data set was used to run four established ET algorithms: the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model (PT-JPL), the Penman–Monteith algorithm from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) evaporation product (PM-MOD), the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM). In addition, in situ meteorological data from 24 FLUXNET towers were used to force the models, with results from both forcing sets compared to tower-based flux observations. Model performance was assessed on several timescales using both sub-daily and daily forcings. The PT-JPL model and GLEAM provide the best performance for both satellite- and tower-based forcing as well as for the considered temporal resolutions. Simulations using the PM-MOD were mostly underestimated, while the SEBS performance was characterized by a systematic overestimation. In general, all four algorithms produce the best results in wet and moderately wet climate regimes. In dry regimes, the correlation and the absolute agreement with the reference tower ET observations were consistently lower. While ET derived with in situ forcing data agrees best with the tower measurements (R2 = 0.67), the agreement of the satellite-based ET estimates is only marginally lower (R2 = 0.58). Results also show similar model performance at daily and sub-daily (3-hourly) resolutions. Overall, our validation experiments against in situ measurements indicate that there is no single best-performing algorithm across all biome and forcing types. In conclusion, an extension of the evaluation to a larger selection of 85 towers (model inputs resampled to a common grid to facilitate global estimates) confirmed the original findings.},
doi = {10.5194/hess-20-803-2016},
journal = {Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 20,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {2}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 23 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979–Present)
journal, December 2003


A climatological study of evapotranspiration and moisture stress across the continental United States based on thermal remote sensing: 1. Model formulation: EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND MOISTURE STRESS
journal, May 2007

  • Anderson, Martha C.; Norman, John M.; Mecikalski, John R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 112, Issue D10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006JD007506

FLUXNET: A New Tool to Study the Temporal and Spatial Variability of Ecosystem–Scale Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Flux Densities
journal, November 2001


Novel design of an enclosed CO 2 /H 2 O gas analyser for eddy covariance flux measurements
journal, January 2010


Development of a 10-year (2001–2010) 0.1° data set of land-surface energy balance for mainland China
journal, January 2014


Review on estimation of evapotranspiration from remote sensing data: From empirical to numerical modeling approaches
journal, November 2005

  • Courault, Dominique; Seguin, Bernard; Olioso, Albert
  • Irrigation and Drainage Systems, Vol. 19, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10795-005-5186-0

The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system
journal, April 2011

  • Dee, D. P.; Uppala, S. M.; Simmons, A. J.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 137, Issue 656
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.828

Multi-site evaluation of terrestrial evaporation models using FLUXNET data
journal, April 2014


An Evaluation of Satellite Remote Sensing Data Products for Land Surface Hydrology: Atmospheric Infrared Sounder
journal, December 2010

  • Ferguson, Craig R.; Wood, Eric F.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 11, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/2010JHM1217.1

Global estimates of the land–atmosphere water flux based on monthly AVHRR and ISLSCP-II data, validated at 16 FLUXNET sites
journal, March 2008

  • Fisher, Joshua B.; Tu, Kevin P.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.
  • Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 112, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2007.06.025

Some aspects of the energy balance closure problem
journal, January 2006

  • Foken, T.; Wimmer, F.; Mauder, M.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-6-4395-2006

An analytical model of rainfall interception by forests
journal, January 1979

  • Gash, Jhc
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 105, Issue 443
  • DOI: 10.1256/smsqj.44303

The evaporation from Thetford Forest during 1975
journal, November 1977


Estimation of sensible heat flux using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) and ATSR measurements
journal, January 2003

  • Jia, Li; Su, Zhongbo; van den Hurk, Bart
  • Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Vol. 28, Issue 1-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/S1474-7065(03)00009-3

Global intercomparison of 12 land surface heat flux estimates
journal, January 2011

  • Jiménez, C.; Prigent, C.; Mueller, B.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, Issue D2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JD014545

CMORPH: A Method that Produces Global Precipitation Estimates from Passive Microwave and Infrared Data at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution
journal, June 2004


Recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply
journal, October 2010

  • Jung, Martin; Reichstein, Markus; Ciais, Philippe
  • Nature, Vol. 467, Issue 7318
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature09396

Estimating Land Surface Evaporation: A Review of Methods Using Remotely Sensed Surface Temperature Data
journal, August 2008

  • Kalma, Jetse D.; McVicar, Tim R.; McCabe, Matthew F.
  • Surveys in Geophysics, Vol. 29, Issue 4-5
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10712-008-9037-z

A prototype AMSR-E global snow area and snow depth algorithm
journal, February 2003

  • Kelly, R. E.; Chang, A. T.; Tsang, L.
  • IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 41, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2003.809118

A Two-Source Energy Balance Approach Using Directional Radiometric Temperature Observations for Sparse Canopy Covered Surfaces
journal, January 2000


Global long-term passive microwave satellite-based retrievals of vegetation optical depth: LONG-TERM VEGETATION OPTICAL DEPTH
journal, September 2011

  • Liu, Yi Y.; de Jeu, Richard A. M.; McCabe, Matthew F.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048684

Developing an improved soil moisture dataset by blending passive and active microwave satellite-based retrievals
journal, January 2011

  • Liu, Y. Y.; Parinussa, R. M.; Dorigo, W. A.
  • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 15, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/hess-15-425-2011

Disentangling climatic and anthropogenic controls on global terrestrial evapotranspiration trends
journal, September 2015


Improving terrestrial evaporation estimates over continental Australia through assimilation of SMOS soil moisture
journal, June 2016

  • Martens, B.; Miralles, D.; Lievens, H.
  • International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Vol. 48
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jag.2015.09.012

Scale influences on the remote estimation of evapotranspiration using multiple satellite sensors
journal, December 2006


The GEWEX LandFlux project: evaluation of model evaporation using tower-based and globally-gridded forcing data
journal, January 2015

  • McCabe, M. F.; Ershadi, A.; Jimenez, C.
  • Geoscientific Model Development Discussions, Vol. 8, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmdd-8-6809-2015

Global canopy interception from satellite observations
journal, January 2010

  • Miralles, Diego G.; Gash, John H.; Holmes, Thomas R. H.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue D16
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JD013530

Global land-surface evaporation estimated from satellite-based observations
journal, January 2011

  • Miralles, D. G.; Holmes, T. R. H.; De Jeu, R. A. M.
  • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 15, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/hess-15-453-2011

Magnitude and variability of land evaporation and its components at the global scale
journal, January 2011

  • Miralles, D. G.; De Jeu, R. A. M.; Gash, J. H.
  • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 15, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.5194/hess-15-967-2011

The WACMOS-ET project – Part 2: Evaluation of global terrestrial evaporation data sets
journal, January 2016

  • Miralles, D. G.; Jiménez, C.; Jung, M.
  • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 20, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/hess-20-823-2016

Comparison of ERA-40, ERA-Interim and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data with observed surface air temperatures over Ireland
journal, March 2011

  • Mooney, P. A.; Mulligan, F. J.; Fealy, R.
  • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 31, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/joc.2098

Development of a global evapotranspiration algorithm based on MODIS and global meteorology data
journal, December 2007

  • Mu, Qiaozhen; Heinsch, Faith Ann; Zhao, Maosheng
  • Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 111, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2007.04.015

Improvements to a MODIS global terrestrial evapotranspiration algorithm
journal, August 2011

  • Mu, Qiaozhen; Zhao, Maosheng; Running, Steven W.
  • Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 115, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2011.02.019

Evaluation of global observations-based evapotranspiration datasets and IPCC AR4 simulations: GLOBAL LAND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION DATASETS
journal, March 2011

  • Mueller, B.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Jimenez, C.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010GL046230

Benchmark products for land evapotranspiration: LandFlux-EVAL multi-data set synthesis
journal, January 2013

  • Mueller, B.; Hirschi, M.; Jimenez, C.
  • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 17, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.5194/hess-17-3707-2013

Review of the vapour pressures of ice and supercooled water for atmospheric applications
journal, April 2005

  • Murphy, D. M.; Koop, T.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 131, Issue 608
  • DOI: 10.1256/qj.04.94

A methodology for surface soil moisture and vegetation optical depth retrieval using the microwave polarization difference index
journal, January 2001

  • Owe, M.; de Jeu, R.; Walker, J.
  • IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 39, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1109/36.942542

Evaluation of the JRC-TIP 0.01° products over a mid-latitude deciduous forest site
journal, December 2011


Global-Scale Comparison of MISR and MODIS Land Surface Albedos
journal, February 2011

  • Pinty, Bernard; Taberner, Malcolm; Haemmerle, Vance R.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 24, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/2010JCLI3709.1

On the Assessment of Surface Heat Flux and Evaporation Using Large-Scale Parameters
journal, February 1972


Development of a Global Infrared Land Surface Emissivity Database for Application to Clear Sky Sounding Retrievals from Multispectral Satellite Radiance Measurements
journal, January 2008

  • Seemann, Suzanne W.; Borbas, Eva E.; Knuteson, Robert O.
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 47, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/2007JAMC1590.1

Mapping forest canopy height globally with spaceborne lidar
journal, January 2011

  • Simard, Marc; Pinto, Naiara; Fisher, Joshua B.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, Issue G4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JG001708

Modeling Evapotranspiration during SMACEX: Comparing Two Approaches for Local- and Regional-Scale Prediction
journal, December 2005

  • Su, H.; McCabe, M. F.; Wood, E. F.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 6, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM466.1

The Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) for estimation of turbulent heat fluxes
journal, January 2002


Verification of the new ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis over France
journal, January 2011

  • Szczypta, C.; Calvet, J. -C.; Albergel, C.
  • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 15, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/hess-15-647-2011

Multimodel Analysis of Energy and Water Fluxes: Intercomparisons between Operational Analyses, a Land Surface Model, and Remote Sensing
journal, February 2012

  • Vinukollu, Raghuveer K.; Sheffield, Justin; Wood, Eric F.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 13, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/2011JHM1372.1

Global Precipitation: A 17-Year Monthly Analysis Based on Gauge Observations, Satellite Estimates, and Numerical Model Outputs
journal, November 1997


A continuous satellite-derived global record of land surface evapotranspiration from 1983 to 2006: GLOBAL RECORD OF LAND SURFACE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
journal, September 2010

  • Zhang, Ke; Kimball, John S.; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 46, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009WR008800

Vegetation Greening and Climate Change Promote Multidecadal Rises of Global Land Evapotranspiration
journal, October 2015

  • Zhang, Ke; Kimball, John S.; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep15956

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Intercomparison and Uncertainty Assessment of Nine Evapotranspiration Estimates Over South America
    journal, April 2018

    • Sörensson, Anna A.; Ruscica, Romina C.
    • Water Resources Research, Vol. 54, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1002/2017wr021682

    GLEAM v3: satellite-based land evaporation and root-zone soil moisture
    journal, January 2017

    • Martens, Brecht; Miralles, Diego G.; Lievens, Hans
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 10, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-10-1903-2017

    On the Desiccation of the South Aral Sea Observed from Spaceborne Missions
    journal, May 2018

    • Singh, Alka; Behrangi, Ali; Fisher, Joshua B.
    • Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.3390/rs10050793

    Towards Estimating Land Evaporation at Field Scales Using GLEAM
    journal, October 2018

    • Martens, Brecht; de Jeu, Richard; Verhoest, Niko
    • Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.3390/rs10111720

    Combining Remote Sensing and Water-Balance Evapotranspiration Estimates for the Conterminous United States
    journal, November 2017

    • Reitz, Meredith; Senay, Gabriel; Sanford, Ward
    • Remote Sensing, Vol. 9, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.3390/rs9121181

    Using satellite-based evapotranspiration estimates to improve the structure of a simple conceptual rainfall–runoff model
    journal, January 2017

    • Roy, Tirthankar; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Serrat-Capdevila, Aleix
    • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 21, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.5194/hess-21-879-2017

    Intercomparison and Uncertainty Assessment of Nine Evapotranspiration Estimates Over South America
    journal, April 2018

    • Sörensson, Anna A.; Ruscica, Romina C.
    • Water Resources Research, Vol. 54, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1002/2017wr021682

    On the Desiccation of the South Aral Sea Observed from Spaceborne Missions
    journal, May 2018

    • Singh, Alka; Behrangi, Ali; Fisher, Joshua B.
    • Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.3390/rs10050793

    Towards Estimating Land Evaporation at Field Scales Using GLEAM
    journal, October 2018

    • Martens, Brecht; de Jeu, Richard; Verhoest, Niko
    • Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.3390/rs10111720

    Combining Remote Sensing and Water-Balance Evapotranspiration Estimates for the Conterminous United States
    journal, November 2017

    • Reitz, Meredith; Senay, Gabriel; Sanford, Ward
    • Remote Sensing, Vol. 9, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.3390/rs9121181

    GLEAM v3: satellite-based land evaporation and root-zone soil moisture
    journal, January 2017

    • Martens, Brecht; Miralles, Diego G.; Lievens, Hans
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 10, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-10-1903-2017

    Using satellite-based evapotranspiration estimates to improve the structure of a simple conceptual rainfall–runoff model
    journal, January 2017

    • Roy, Tirthankar; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Serrat-Capdevila, Aleix
    • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 21, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.5194/hess-21-879-2017