skip to main content


Title: Galvanostatic interruption of lithium insertion into magnetite: Evidence of surface layer formation

Magnetite is a known lithium intercalation material, and the loss of active, nanocrystalline magnetite can be inferred from the open-circuit potential relaxation. Specifically, for current interruption after relatively small amounts of lithium insertion, the potential first increases and then decreases, and the decrease is hypothesized to be due to a formation of a surface layer, which increases the solid-state lithium concentration in the remaining active material. Comparisons of simulation to experiment suggest that the reactions with the electrolyte result in the formation of a thin layer of electrochemically inactive material, which is best described by a nucleation and growth mechanism. Simulations are consistent with experimental results observed for 6, 8 and 32-nm crystals. As a result, simulations capture the experimental differences in lithiation behavior between the first and second cycles.
;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [2]
  1. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  2. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
  3. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Grant/Contract Number:
SC00112704; SC0012673; C090171
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Power Sources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 321; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
25 ENERGY STORAGE; galvanostatic; magnetite; surface layer formation
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1345841