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Title: Stover composition in maize and sorghum reveals remarkable genetic variation and plasticity for carbohydrate accumulation

Abstract

Carbohydrates stored in vegetative organs, particularly stems, of grasses are a very important source of energy. We examined carbohydrate accumulation in adult sorghum and maize hybrids with distinct phenology and different end uses (grain, silage, sucrose or sweetness in stalk juice, and biomass). Remarkable variation was observed for nonstructural carbohydrates and structural polysaccharides during three key developmental stages both between and within hybrids developed for distinct end use in both species. At the onset of the reproductive phase (average 65 days after planting, DAP), a wide range for accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates (free glucose and sucrose combined), was observed in internodes of maize (11-24%) and sorghum (7-36%) indicating substantial variation for transient storage of excess photosynthate during periods of low grain or vegetative sink strength. Remobilization of these reserves for supporting grain fill or vegetative growth was evident from lower amounts in maize (8-19%) and sorghum (9-27%) near the end of the reproductive period (average 95 DAP). At physiological maturity of grain hybrids (average 120 DAP), amounts of these carbohydrates were generally unchanged in maize (9-21%) and sorghum (16-27%) suggesting a loss of photosynthetic assimilation due to weakening sink demand. Nonetheless, high amounts of non-structural carbohydrates at maturity even inmore » grain maize and sorghum (15-18%) highlight the potential for developing dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. For both species, the amounts of structural polysaccharides in the cell wall, measured as monomeric components (glucose and pentose), decreased during grain fill but remained unchanged thereafter with maize biomass possessing slightly higher amounts than sorghum. In conclusion, availability of carbohydrates in maize and sorghum highlights the potential for developing energy-rich dedicated biofuel or dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [2];  [2]
  1. Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC (United States). Dept. of Genetics and Biochemistry
  2. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Agronomy, DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center
  3. Federal Univ. of Goias, Goiania (Brazil). Institute of Mathematics and Statistics
  4. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Center for Chemical Genomics
  5. Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23); DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC); Clemson University
OSTI Identifier:
1280815
Grant/Contract Number:  
FC02-07ER64494
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Plant Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 1664-462X
Publisher:
Frontiers Research Foundation
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; sorghum; maize; biofuels; biofeedstocks; non-structural carbohydrates; structural carbohydrates; abiotic stress responses; crop-livestock systems; cell-wall; alkaline-degradation; biofuel production; ethanol-production; leaf senescence; ear removal; yield; sugar

Citation Formats

Sekhon, Rajandeep S., Breitzman, Matthew W., Silva, Renato R., Santoro, Nicholas, Rooney, William L., de Leon, Natalia, and Kaeppler, Shawn M. Stover composition in maize and sorghum reveals remarkable genetic variation and plasticity for carbohydrate accumulation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.3389/fpls.2016.00822.
Sekhon, Rajandeep S., Breitzman, Matthew W., Silva, Renato R., Santoro, Nicholas, Rooney, William L., de Leon, Natalia, & Kaeppler, Shawn M. Stover composition in maize and sorghum reveals remarkable genetic variation and plasticity for carbohydrate accumulation. United States. doi:10.3389/fpls.2016.00822.
Sekhon, Rajandeep S., Breitzman, Matthew W., Silva, Renato R., Santoro, Nicholas, Rooney, William L., de Leon, Natalia, and Kaeppler, Shawn M. Wed . "Stover composition in maize and sorghum reveals remarkable genetic variation and plasticity for carbohydrate accumulation". United States. doi:10.3389/fpls.2016.00822. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1280815.
@article{osti_1280815,
title = {Stover composition in maize and sorghum reveals remarkable genetic variation and plasticity for carbohydrate accumulation},
author = {Sekhon, Rajandeep S. and Breitzman, Matthew W. and Silva, Renato R. and Santoro, Nicholas and Rooney, William L. and de Leon, Natalia and Kaeppler, Shawn M.},
abstractNote = {Carbohydrates stored in vegetative organs, particularly stems, of grasses are a very important source of energy. We examined carbohydrate accumulation in adult sorghum and maize hybrids with distinct phenology and different end uses (grain, silage, sucrose or sweetness in stalk juice, and biomass). Remarkable variation was observed for nonstructural carbohydrates and structural polysaccharides during three key developmental stages both between and within hybrids developed for distinct end use in both species. At the onset of the reproductive phase (average 65 days after planting, DAP), a wide range for accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates (free glucose and sucrose combined), was observed in internodes of maize (11-24%) and sorghum (7-36%) indicating substantial variation for transient storage of excess photosynthate during periods of low grain or vegetative sink strength. Remobilization of these reserves for supporting grain fill or vegetative growth was evident from lower amounts in maize (8-19%) and sorghum (9-27%) near the end of the reproductive period (average 95 DAP). At physiological maturity of grain hybrids (average 120 DAP), amounts of these carbohydrates were generally unchanged in maize (9-21%) and sorghum (16-27%) suggesting a loss of photosynthetic assimilation due to weakening sink demand. Nonetheless, high amounts of non-structural carbohydrates at maturity even in grain maize and sorghum (15-18%) highlight the potential for developing dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. For both species, the amounts of structural polysaccharides in the cell wall, measured as monomeric components (glucose and pentose), decreased during grain fill but remained unchanged thereafter with maize biomass possessing slightly higher amounts than sorghum. In conclusion, availability of carbohydrates in maize and sorghum highlights the potential for developing energy-rich dedicated biofuel or dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops.},
doi = {10.3389/fpls.2016.00822},
journal = {Frontiers in Plant Science},
number = ,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {6}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Kinetin and Indole Acetic Acid Promote Antioxidant Defense System and Reduce Oxidative Stress in Maize (Zea mays L.) Plants Grown at Boron Toxicity
    journal, June 2018

    • Kaya, Cengiz; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Ashraf, Muhammad
    • Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, Vol. 37, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00344-018-9827-6

    Kinetin and Indole Acetic Acid Promote Antioxidant Defense System and Reduce Oxidative Stress in Maize (Zea mays L.) Plants Grown at Boron Toxicity
    journal, June 2018

    • Kaya, Cengiz; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Ashraf, Muhammad
    • Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, Vol. 37, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00344-018-9827-6