skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Evaluation of critical current density and residual resistance ratio limits in powder in tube Nb3Sn conductors

Abstract

High critical current density (Jc) Nb3Sn A15 multifilamentary wires require a large volume fraction of small grain, superconducting A15 phase, as well as Cu stabilizer with high Residual Resistance Ratio (RRR) to provide electromagnetic stabilization and protection. In Powder-in-Tube (PIT) wires the unreacted Nb7.5wt.%Ta outer layer of the tubular filaments acts as a diffusion barrier and protects the interfilamentary Cu stabilizer from Sn contamination. A high RRR requirement generally imposes a restricted A15 reaction heat treatment (HT) to prevent localized full reaction of the filament that could allow Sn to reach the Cu. In this paper we investigate recent high quality PIT wires that achieve a Jc(12 T, 4.2 K) up to ~2500 A/mm-2 and find that the minimum diffusion barrier thickness decreases as the filament aspect ratio increases from ~1 in the inner rings of filaments to 1.3 in the outer filament rings. We found that just 2-3 diffusion barrier breaches can degrade RRR from 300 to 150 or less. Using progressive etching of the Cu we also found that the RRR degradation is localized near the external filaments where deformation is highest. Consequently minimizing filament distortion during strand fabrication is important for reducing RRR degradation. The additional challengemore » of developing the highest possible Jc must be addressed by forming the maximum fraction of high Jc small-grain (SG) A15 and minimizing low Jc large-grain (LG) A15 morphologies. Finally, in one wire we found that 15% of the filaments had a significantly enhanced SG/LG A15 ratio and no residual A15 in the core, a feature that opens a path to substantial Jc improvement.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [1]
  1. Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Applied Superconductivity Center, NHMFL
  2. Bruker EAS GmbH, Hanau (Germany)
  3. European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP); National Science Foundation (NSF); CERN; State of Florida (United States)
Contributing Org.:
European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Bruker EAS GmbH, Hanau (Germany)
OSTI Identifier:
1271124
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1256530
Report Number(s):
DOE-NHMFL-41451
Journal ID: ISSN 0953-2048; FG02-07ER41451
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012083; FG02-07ER41451; KE1920; KN2713; NSF/DMR-1157490
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Superconductor Science and Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 29; Journal Issue: 8; Related Information: The PIT strand was supplied to us by the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), which is a BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC collaboration with CERN for the High Luminosity LHC program: http://www.uslarp.org/; Journal ID: ISSN 0953-2048
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; A15; Nb3Sn; microstructure; superconducting wires

Citation Formats

Segal, Christopher, Tarantini, Chiara, Sung, Zu Hawn, Lee, Peter J., Sailer, Bernd, Thoener, Manfred, Schlenga, Klaus, Ballarino, Amalia, Bottura, Luca, Bordini, Bernardo, Scheuerlein, Christian, and Larbalestier, David C. Evaluation of critical current density and residual resistance ratio limits in powder in tube Nb3Sn conductors. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-2048/29/8/085003.
Segal, Christopher, Tarantini, Chiara, Sung, Zu Hawn, Lee, Peter J., Sailer, Bernd, Thoener, Manfred, Schlenga, Klaus, Ballarino, Amalia, Bottura, Luca, Bordini, Bernardo, Scheuerlein, Christian, & Larbalestier, David C. Evaluation of critical current density and residual resistance ratio limits in powder in tube Nb3Sn conductors. United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-2048/29/8/085003
Segal, Christopher, Tarantini, Chiara, Sung, Zu Hawn, Lee, Peter J., Sailer, Bernd, Thoener, Manfred, Schlenga, Klaus, Ballarino, Amalia, Bottura, Luca, Bordini, Bernardo, Scheuerlein, Christian, and Larbalestier, David C. Fri . "Evaluation of critical current density and residual resistance ratio limits in powder in tube Nb3Sn conductors". United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-2048/29/8/085003. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1271124.
@article{osti_1271124,
title = {Evaluation of critical current density and residual resistance ratio limits in powder in tube Nb3Sn conductors},
author = {Segal, Christopher and Tarantini, Chiara and Sung, Zu Hawn and Lee, Peter J. and Sailer, Bernd and Thoener, Manfred and Schlenga, Klaus and Ballarino, Amalia and Bottura, Luca and Bordini, Bernardo and Scheuerlein, Christian and Larbalestier, David C.},
abstractNote = {High critical current density (Jc) Nb3Sn A15 multifilamentary wires require a large volume fraction of small grain, superconducting A15 phase, as well as Cu stabilizer with high Residual Resistance Ratio (RRR) to provide electromagnetic stabilization and protection. In Powder-in-Tube (PIT) wires the unreacted Nb7.5wt.%Ta outer layer of the tubular filaments acts as a diffusion barrier and protects the interfilamentary Cu stabilizer from Sn contamination. A high RRR requirement generally imposes a restricted A15 reaction heat treatment (HT) to prevent localized full reaction of the filament that could allow Sn to reach the Cu. In this paper we investigate recent high quality PIT wires that achieve a Jc(12 T, 4.2 K) up to ~2500 A/mm-2 and find that the minimum diffusion barrier thickness decreases as the filament aspect ratio increases from ~1 in the inner rings of filaments to 1.3 in the outer filament rings. We found that just 2-3 diffusion barrier breaches can degrade RRR from 300 to 150 or less. Using progressive etching of the Cu we also found that the RRR degradation is localized near the external filaments where deformation is highest. Consequently minimizing filament distortion during strand fabrication is important for reducing RRR degradation. The additional challenge of developing the highest possible Jc must be addressed by forming the maximum fraction of high Jc small-grain (SG) A15 and minimizing low Jc large-grain (LG) A15 morphologies. Finally, in one wire we found that 15% of the filaments had a significantly enhanced SG/LG A15 ratio and no residual A15 in the core, a feature that opens a path to substantial Jc improvement.},
doi = {10.1088/0953-2048/29/8/085003},
journal = {Superconductor Science and Technology},
number = 8,
volume = 29,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 5 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Advanced Accelerator Magnets for Upgrading the LHC
journal, June 2012

  • Bottura, L.; de Rijk, G.; Rossi, L.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2012.2186109

Multifilamentary niobium tin magnet conductors
journal, March 1975


Improvement in Characteristics of Bronze-processed Nb3Sn Superconducting Wires [ブロンズ法Nb3Sn 線材の高性能化]
journal, January 2012

  • Murakami, Yukinobu; Kato, Hiroyuki; Kurahashi, Hidefumi
  • TEION KOGAKU (Journal of Cryogenics and Superconductivity Society of Japan), Vol. 47, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.2221/jcsj.47.474

Microstructural factors important for the development of high critical current density Nb3Sn strand
journal, July 2008


Targets for R&D on Nb 3 Sn Conductor for High Energy Physics
journal, June 2015


Optimizing <formula formulatype="inline"><tex Notation="TeX">$\hbox{Nb}_{3}\hbox{Sn}$</tex></formula> Conductors for High Field Applications
journal, June 2014


Examination of the trade-off between intrinsic and extrinsic properties in the optimization of a modern internal tin Nb 3 Sn conductor
journal, April 2014


Potential fabrication method of superconducting multifilament wires of the A-15 type
journal, March 1975


Multifilament V3Ga and Nb3Sn superconductors produced by the ECN-technique
journal, January 1977

  • Elen, J.; van Beijnen, C.; van der Klein, C.
  • IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 13, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/TMAG.1977.1059291

Multifilament Nb<inf>3</inf>Sn superconductors produced by the E.C.N. technique
journal, January 1979


Progress in the development of Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors based on the "Powder in tube" method with finer filaments
journal, June 1999

  • Londenhovius, J. H.; Hornveld, E. M.; den Ouden, A.
  • IEEE Transactions on Appiled Superconductivity, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/77.784664

Irreversibility field and critical current density as a function of heat treatment time and temperature for a pure niobium powder-in-tube Nb[sub 3]Sn conductor
conference, January 2002

  • Fischer, C. M.
  • ADVANCES IN CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING: Proceedings of the International Cryogenic Materials Conference - ICMC, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1472643

The upper critical field of filamentary Nb3Sn conductors
journal, May 2005

  • Godeke, A.; Jewell, M. C.; Fischer, C. M.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 97, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1890447

The strain dependence of the critical properties of Nb3Sn conductors
journal, March 1999

  • ten Haken, B.; Godeke, A.; ten Kate, H. H. J.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 85, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.369667

A review of the properties of Nb 3 Sn and their variation with A15 composition, morphology and strain state
journal, June 2006


Composition and connectivity variability of the A15 phase in PIT Nb 3 Sn wires
journal, July 2015


Flux pinning centers in superconducting Nb 3 Sn
journal, May 1975

  • Scanlan, R. M.; Fietz, W. A.; Koch, E. F.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 46, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.321816

High field Nb/sub 3/ Sn conductor development at oxford superconducting technology
journal, June 2003

  • Parrell, J. A.; Field, M. B.
  • IEEE Transactions on Appiled Superconductivity, Vol. 13, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2003.812360

Extensive Characterization of the 1 mm PIT ${\rm Nb}_{3}{\rm Sn}$ Strand for the 13-T FRESCA2 Magnet
journal, June 2012

  • Bordini, B.; Bottura, L.; Mondonico, G.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2011.2178217

Magnet R&D for the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP)
journal, June 2006

  • Gourlay, S. A.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 16, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2006.870786

Nb3Sn research and development in the USA – Wires and cables
journal, July 2008


Formation and upper critical fields of the two distinct A15 phases in the subelements of powder-in-tube Nb3Sn wires
journal, January 2013

  • Senatore, Carmine; Flükiger, René
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4773490

Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis
journal, June 2012

  • Schindelin, Johannes; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Frise, Erwin
  • Nature Methods, Vol. 9, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.2019

NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis
journal, June 2012

  • Schneider, Caroline A.; Rasband, Wayne S.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.
  • Nature Methods, Vol. 9, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.2089

Kirkendall voids--A detriment to Nb3Sn superconductors
journal, January 1979


Development of the $\hbox{Nb}_{3}\hbox{Sn}$ Rutherford Cable for the EuCARD High Field Dipole Magnet FRESCA2
journal, June 2013


Coarse ${\rm Nb}_{3}{\rm Sn}$ Grain Formation and Phase Evolution During the Reaction of a High Sn Content Internal Tin Strand
journal, June 2011

  • Scheuerlein, C.; Di Michiel, M.; Arnau, G.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 21, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2010.2082476

Growth kinetics and characterization of superconducting properties of multifilament materials made by the ECN powder method
journal, May 1983


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Structural and magnetic properties of the as-cast V 1− x Zr x alloy superconductors
    journal, November 2019

    • Sharath Chandra, L. S.; Paul, Sabyasachi; Khandelwal, Ashish
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 126, Issue 18
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5121184

    Beneficial influence of Hf and Zr additions to Nb4at%Ta on the vortex pinning of Nb 3 Sn with and without an O source
    journal, February 2019

    • Balachandran, Shreyas; Tarantini, Chiara; Lee, Peter J.
    • Superconductor Science and Technology, Vol. 32, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6668/aaff02

    Effect of Zn addition and Ti doping position on the diffusion reaction of internal tin Nb 3 Sn conductors
    journal, October 2019

    • Banno, Nobuya; Morita, Taro; Yu, Zhou
    • Superconductor Science and Technology, Vol. 32, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6668/ab4632

    Effect of the fabrication route on the phase and volume changes during the reaction heat treatment of Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires
    journal, January 2020

    • Scheuerlein, C.; Andrieux, J.; Michels, M.
    • Superconductor Science and Technology, Vol. 33, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6668/ab627c

    Very-high thermal and electrical conductivity in overpressure-processed Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+ x wires
    journal, May 2018