skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: A uniform contribution of core-collapse and type Ia supernovae to the chemical enrichment pattern in the outskirts of the Virgo Cluster

Abstract

We present the first measurements of the abundances of α-elements (Mg, Si, and S) extending out beyond the virial radius of a cluster of galaxies. Our results, based on Suzaku Key Project observations of the Virgo Cluster, show that the chemical composition of the intracluster medium is consistent with being constant on large scales, with a flat distribution of the Si/Fe, S/Fe, and Mg/Fe ratios as a function of radius and azimuth out to 1.4 Mpc (1.3 r200). Chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium due solely to core-collapse supernovae (SNcc) is excluded with very high significance; instead, the measured metal abundance ratios are generally consistent with the solar value. The uniform metal abundance ratios observed today are likely the result of an early phase of enrichment and mixing, with both SNcc and SNe Ia contributing to the metal budget during the period of peak star formation activity at redshifts of 2–3. Furthermore, we estimate the ratio between the number of SNe Ia and the total number of supernovae enriching the intergalactic medium to be between 12% and 37%, broadly consistent with the metal abundance patterns in our own Galaxy or with the SN Ia contribution estimated for the cluster cores.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [2]
  1. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Kanagawa (Japan)
  2. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  3. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  4. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Kanagawa (Japan); Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1270628
Report Number(s):
SLAC-PUB-16657
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213; arXiv:1506.06164
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal. Letters (Online); Journal Volume: 811; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; astrophysics; ASTRO; galaxies: clusters: individual (Virgo Cluster); galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium; ISM: abundances; X-rays: galaxies: clusters

Citation Formats

Simionescu, A., Werner, N., Urban, O., Allen, S. W., Ichinohe, Y., and Zhuravleva, I.. A uniform contribution of core-collapse and type Ia supernovae to the chemical enrichment pattern in the outskirts of the Virgo Cluster. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. https://doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/811/2/L25.
Simionescu, A., Werner, N., Urban, O., Allen, S. W., Ichinohe, Y., & Zhuravleva, I.. A uniform contribution of core-collapse and type Ia supernovae to the chemical enrichment pattern in the outskirts of the Virgo Cluster. United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/811/2/L25
Simionescu, A., Werner, N., Urban, O., Allen, S. W., Ichinohe, Y., and Zhuravleva, I.. Thu . "A uniform contribution of core-collapse and type Ia supernovae to the chemical enrichment pattern in the outskirts of the Virgo Cluster". United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/811/2/L25. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1270628.
@article{osti_1270628,
title = {A uniform contribution of core-collapse and type Ia supernovae to the chemical enrichment pattern in the outskirts of the Virgo Cluster},
author = {Simionescu, A. and Werner, N. and Urban, O. and Allen, S. W. and Ichinohe, Y. and Zhuravleva, I.},
abstractNote = {We present the first measurements of the abundances of α-elements (Mg, Si, and S) extending out beyond the virial radius of a cluster of galaxies. Our results, based on Suzaku Key Project observations of the Virgo Cluster, show that the chemical composition of the intracluster medium is consistent with being constant on large scales, with a flat distribution of the Si/Fe, S/Fe, and Mg/Fe ratios as a function of radius and azimuth out to 1.4 Mpc (1.3 r200). Chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium due solely to core-collapse supernovae (SNcc) is excluded with very high significance; instead, the measured metal abundance ratios are generally consistent with the solar value. The uniform metal abundance ratios observed today are likely the result of an early phase of enrichment and mixing, with both SNcc and SNe Ia contributing to the metal budget during the period of peak star formation activity at redshifts of 2–3. Furthermore, we estimate the ratio between the number of SNe Ia and the total number of supernovae enriching the intergalactic medium to be between 12% and 37%, broadly consistent with the metal abundance patterns in our own Galaxy or with the SN Ia contribution estimated for the cluster cores.},
doi = {10.1088/2041-8205/811/2/L25},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 811,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 21 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Implications of the central metal abundance peak in cooling core clusters of galaxies
journal, March 2004


X-ray evidence for multiphase hot gas with nearly solar Fe abundances in the brightest groups of galaxies
journal, January 2000


Metallicity Gradients in X‐Ray Clusters of Galaxies
journal, April 2001

  • De Grandi, Sabrina; Molendi, Silvano
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 551, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/320098

The origin of the chemical elements in cluster cores: The origin of the chemical elements in cluster cores
journal, May 2013


Constraining supernova models using the hot gas in clusters of galaxies
journal, January 2007


An ASCA Study of the Heavy‐Element Distribution in Clusters of Galaxies
journal, November 2000

  • Finoguenov, A.; David, L. P.; Ponman, T. J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 544, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/317173

Evidence for Solar-Wind Charge-Exchange X-Ray Emission from the Earth’s Magnetosheath
journal, January 2007

  • Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; McCammon, Dan
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Vol. 59, Issue sp1
  • DOI: 10.1093/pasj/59.sp1.S133

Nucleosynthesis in Chandrasekhar Mass Models for Type Ia Supernovae and Constraints on Progenitor Systems and Burning‐Front Propagation
journal, December 1999

  • Iwamoto, Koichi; Brachwitz, Franziska; Nomoto, Ken’ichi
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 125, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/313278

The Leiden/Argentine/Bonn (LAB) Survey of Galactic HI: Final data release of the combined LDS and IAR surveys with improved stray-radiation corrections
journal, September 2005


Deconstructing the Spectrum of the Soft X‐Ray Background
journal, November 2000

  • Kuntz, K. D.; Snowden, S. L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 543, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/317071

Solar System Abundances and Condensation Temperatures of the Elements
journal, July 2003

  • Lodders, Katharina
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 591, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/375492

Two populations of progenitors for Type Ia supernovae?
journal, August 2006


Core-collapse supernova enrichment in the core of the Virgo cluster: Core-collapse supernova enrichment in M87
journal, September 2011


Nucleosynthesis yields of core-collapse supernovae and hypernovae, and galactic chemical evolution
journal, October 2006


METAL DISTRIBUTIONS OUT TO 0.5 r 180 IN THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM OF FOUR GALAXY GROUPS OBSERVED WITH SUZAKU
journal, January 2014


Temperature and Metallicity in the Intra-Cluster Medium of Abell 262 Observed with Suzaku
journal, January 2009

  • Sato, Kosuke; Matsushita, Kyoko; Gastaldello, Fabio
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Vol. 61, Issue sp1
  • DOI: 10.1093/pasj/61.sp1.S365

Chemical enrichment in the cluster of galaxies Hydra A
journal, November 2008


Metal transport by gas sloshing in M87
journal, March 2010


Thermodynamics of the coma Cluster Outskirts
journal, August 2013


Collisional Plasma Models with APEC/APED: Emission-Line Diagnostics of Hydrogen-like and Helium-like Ions
journal, August 2001

  • Smith, Randall K.; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Liedahl, Duane A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 556, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/322992

Elemental abundances in the intracluster medium as observed with XMM-Newton
journal, May 2004


Reproducibility of Non-X-Ray Background for the X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer aboard Suzaku
journal, February 2008

  • Tawa, Noriaki; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Nagai, Masaaki
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Vol. 60, Issue sp1
  • DOI: 10.1093/pasj/60.sp1.S11

The SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances. IV. SBF Magnitudes, Colors, and Distances
journal, January 2001

  • Tonry, John L.; Dressler, Alan; Blakeslee, John P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 546, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/318301

Relative frequencies of Type Ia and Type II supernovae in the chemical evolution of the Galaxy, LMC and SMC
journal, December 1995

  • Tsujimoto, T.; Nomoto, K.; Yoshii, Y.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 277, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/277.3.945

Azimuthally resolved X-ray spectroscopy to the edge of the Perseus Cluster
journal, December 2013

  • Urban, O.; Simionescu, A.; Werner, N.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 437, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2209

X-ray spectroscopy of the Virgo Cluster out to the virial radius: Virgo Cluster out to the virial radius
journal, April 2011


Observations of Metals in the Intra-Cluster Medium
journal, February 2008


A uniform metal distribution in the intergalactic medium of the Perseus cluster of galaxies
journal, October 2013

  • Werner, Norbert; Urban, Ondrej; Simionescu, Aurora
  • Nature, Vol. 502, Issue 7473
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12646

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    De re metallica: the cosmic chemical evolution of galaxies
    journal, February 2019


    Enrichment of the Hot Intracluster Medium: Numerical Simulations
    journal, November 2018


    Enrichment of the Hot Intracluster Medium: Observations
    journal, November 2018


    Planck intermediate results : XL. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal from the Virgo cluster
    journal, December 2016


    Origin of central abundances in the hot intra-cluster medium: I. Individual and average abundance ratios from
    journal, August 2016


    CHEERS: The chemical evolution RGS sample
    journal, November 2017


    Radial metal abundance profiles in the intra-cluster medium of cool-core galaxy clusters, groups, and ellipticals
    journal, July 2017


    The XXL Survey: XXIV. The final detection pipeline
    journal, November 2018


    Possible depletion of metals into dust grains in the core of the Centaurus cluster of galaxies
    journal, February 2019


    A uniform metallicity in the outskirts of massive, nearby galaxy clusters
    journal, June 2017

    • Urban, O.; Werner, N.; Allen, S. W.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 470, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx1542

    The metallicity of the intracluster medium over cosmic time: further evidence for early enrichment
    journal, August 2017

    • Mantz, Adam B.; Allen, Steven W.; Morris, R. Glenn
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 472, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx2200

    The history of chemical enrichment in the intracluster medium from cosmological simulations
    journal, February 2017

    • Biffi, V.; Planelles, S.; Borgani, S.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 468, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx444

    The non-uniformity of galaxy cluster metallicity profiles
    journal, November 2018

    • Lovisari, L.; Reiprich, T. H.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 483, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty3130

    Constraints on the chemical enrichment history of the Perseus Cluster of galaxies from high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy
    journal, November 2018

    • Simionescu, A.; Nakashima, S.; Yamaguchi, H.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 483, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty3220

    Detection of metal-rich, cool-warm gas in the outskirts of galaxy clusters
    journal, July 2019

    • Pradeep, Jayadev; Narayanan, Anand; Muzahid, Sowgat
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 488, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz2059

    Solar chemical composition in the hot gas of cool-core ellipticals, groups, and clusters of galaxies
    journal, July 2018

    • Mernier, F.; Werner, N.; de Plaa, J.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 480, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/sly134

    THE EVOLUTION OF THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM METALLICITY IN SUNYAEV ZEL’DOVICH-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTERS AT 0 < z < 1.5
    journal, July 2016


    QUASARS PROBING QUASARS. VIII. THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE COOL CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM SURROUNDING z ∼ 2–3 MASSIVE GALAXIES HOSTING QUASARS
    journal, October 2016

    • Lau, Marie Wingyee; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 226, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/0067-0049/226/2/25

    Extended X-Ray Study of M49: The Frontier of the Virgo Cluster
    journal, June 2019


    SDSS-IV MaNGA: What Shapes the Distribution of Metals in Galaxies? Exploring the Roles of the Local Gas Fraction and Escape Velocity
    journal, January 2018

    • Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Heckman, T.; Sánchez, S. F.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 852, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa9b31

    Spatial Distribution of the Milky Way Hot Gaseous Halo Constrained by Suzaku X-Ray Observations
    journal, July 2018

    • Nakashima, Shinya; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Yamasaki, Noriko
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 862, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aacceb

    A Study of the Merger History of the Galaxy Group HCG 62 Based on X-Ray Observations and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulations
    journal, January 2019


    Planck intermediate results : VIII. Filaments between interacting clusters
    journal, February 2013


    The XXL Survey: XVII. X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel’dovich properties of the redshift 2.0 galaxy cluster XLSSC 122★★★
    journal, November 2018


    Planck intermediate results : XXIV. Constraints on variations in fundamental constants⋆
    journal, July 2015