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Title: The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing

Abstract

Here, additive Manufacturing (AM), widely known as 3D printing, is a method of manufacturing that forms parts from powder, wire, or sheets in a process that proceeds layer-by-layer.Many techniques (using many different names) have been developed to accomplish this via melting or solid - state joining. In this review, these techniques for producing metal parts are explored, with a focus on the science of metal AM: processing defects, heat transfer, solidification, solid- state precipitation, mechanical properties, and post-processing metallurgy. The various metal AM techniques are compared, with analysis of the strengths and limitations of each. Few alloys have been developed for commercial production, but recent development efforts are presented as a path for the ongoing development of new materials for AM processes.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3]
  1. Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1267051
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
International Materials Reviews
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 61; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 0950-6608
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Sames, William J., List, III, Frederick Alyious, Pannala, Sreekanth, Dehoff, Ryan R., and Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh. The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1080/09506608.2015.1116649.
Sames, William J., List, III, Frederick Alyious, Pannala, Sreekanth, Dehoff, Ryan R., & Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh. The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing. United States. https://doi.org/10.1080/09506608.2015.1116649
Sames, William J., List, III, Frederick Alyious, Pannala, Sreekanth, Dehoff, Ryan R., and Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh. Mon . "The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing". United States. https://doi.org/10.1080/09506608.2015.1116649. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1267051.
@article{osti_1267051,
title = {The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing},
author = {Sames, William J. and List, III, Frederick Alyious and Pannala, Sreekanth and Dehoff, Ryan R. and Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh},
abstractNote = {Here, additive Manufacturing (AM), widely known as 3D printing, is a method of manufacturing that forms parts from powder, wire, or sheets in a process that proceeds layer-by-layer.Many techniques (using many different names) have been developed to accomplish this via melting or solid - state joining. In this review, these techniques for producing metal parts are explored, with a focus on the science of metal AM: processing defects, heat transfer, solidification, solid- state precipitation, mechanical properties, and post-processing metallurgy. The various metal AM techniques are compared, with analysis of the strengths and limitations of each. Few alloys have been developed for commercial production, but recent development efforts are presented as a path for the ongoing development of new materials for AM processes.},
doi = {10.1080/09506608.2015.1116649},
journal = {International Materials Reviews},
number = 5,
volume = 61,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {3}
}

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Effect of scanning strategy and speed on the microstructure and mechanical properties of selective laser melted IN718 nickel-based superalloy
journal, April 2019

  • Amirjan, Mostafa; Sakiani, Hassan
  • The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 103, Issue 5-8
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00170-019-03545-0

Computer-aided design (CAD) compensation through modeling of shrinkage in additively manufactured parts
journal, January 2020

  • Bahnini, Insaf; uz Zaman, Uzair Khaleeq; Rivette, Mickaël
  • The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 106, Issue 9-10
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00170-020-04924-8

The Influence of Annealing Temperature and Time on the Formation of δ-Phase in Additively-Manufactured Inconel 625
journal, May 2018

  • Stoudt, M. R.; Lass, E. A.; Ng, D. S.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 49, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-018-4643-y

Anisotropic Mechanical Behavior of Additive Manufactured AISI 316L Steel
journal, February 2019

  • Im, Yong-Deok; Kim, Kyung-Hoon; Jung, Kyung-Hwan
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 50, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-019-05139-7

Additive Manufacturing of Metallic Materials: A Review
journal, May 2017

  • Zhang, Yi; Wu, Linmin; Guo, Xingye
  • Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 27, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11665-017-2747-y

Structural Properties of EB-Welded AlSi10Mg Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels Produced by AM-SLM Technology
journal, September 2017

  • Nahmany, Moshe; Stern, Adin; Aghion, Eli
  • Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 26, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11665-017-2953-7

Five-Axis Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing for Nuclear Component Manufacture
journal, December 2016


Single-Track Melt-Pool Measurements and Microstructures in Inconel 625
journal, February 2018


Microstructural Investigations in Metals Using Atom Probe Tomography with a Novel Specimen-Electrode Geometry
journal, July 2018


Spark Plasma Sintering of Graded Dissimilar Metals
journal, April 2019

  • Naveen Kumar, N.; Janaki Ram, G. D.; Bhattacharya, S. S.
  • Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, Vol. 72, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1007/s12666-019-01662-8

A Metallographic Review of 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing of Metal and Alloy Products and Components
journal, March 2018


Tensile lap-shear and flexural behaviour of aluminium metal foil parts made by composite metal foil manufacturing
journal, August 2018

  • Butt, Javaid; Mebrahtu, Habtom; Shirvani, Hassan
  • Progress in Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 4, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s40964-018-0060-4

Thermocapillary instabilities in a horizontal liquid layer under partial basal slip
journal, September 2018

  • Kowal, Katarzyna N.; Davis, Stephen H.; Voorhees, Peter W.
  • Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 855
  • DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2018.684

Pore elimination mechanisms during 3D printing of metals
journal, July 2019

  • Hojjatzadeh, S. Mohammad H.; Parab, Niranjan D.; Yan, Wentao
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-10973-9

Real-time monitoring of laser powder bed fusion process using high-speed X-ray imaging and diffraction
journal, June 2017


Influence of energy density on metallurgy and properties in metal additive manufacturing
journal, February 2017


Toward the digital twin of additive manufacturing: Integrating thermal simulations, sensing, and analytics to detect process faults
journal, January 2020


Evolution of molten pool during selective laser melting of Ti–6Al–4V
journal, November 2018


On the primary spacing and microsegregation of cellular dendrites in laser deposited Ni–Nb alloys
journal, June 2017

  • Ghosh, Supriyo; Ma, Li; Ofori-Opoku, Nana
  • Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 25, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-651x/aa7369

Simulation of temperature, stress and microstructure fields during laser deposition of Ti–6Al–4V
journal, September 2018

  • Ghosh, Supriyo; McReynolds, Kevin; Guyer, Jonathan E.
  • Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 26, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-651x/aadff2

Residual stress measurements of laser metal deposited Ti-6Al-4V parts using neutron diffraction
journal, November 2018


Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for in-situ multielemental analysis during additive manufacturing process
journal, November 2018


Preparation and properties of copper matrix composite reinforced with SLM Fe alloy lattice
journal, February 2019


Processing of Alnico Magnets by Additive Manufacturing
journal, November 2019

  • White, Emma; Rinko, Emily; Prost, Timothy
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.3390/app9224843

Additive Manufacturing, Cloud-Based 3D Printing and Associated Services—Overview
journal, October 2017

  • Baumann, Felix; Roller, Dieter
  • Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, Vol. 1, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3390/jmmp1020015

Additively Manufactured Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering and the Prediction of their Mechanical Behavior: A Review
journal, January 2017

  • Zhang, Xiang-Yu; Fang, Gang; Zhou, Jie
  • Materials, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3390/ma10010050

Exploiting Process-Related Advantages of Selective Laser Melting for the Production of High-Manganese Steel
journal, January 2017

  • Haase, Christian; Bültmann, Jan; Hof, Jan
  • Materials, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3390/ma10010056

Grain Structure Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials
journal, November 2017

  • Yan, Fuyao; Xiong, Wei; Faierson, Eric
  • Materials, Vol. 10, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.3390/ma10111260

The Effect of Selective Laser Melting Process Parameters on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al6061 and AlSi10Mg Alloys
journal, December 2018

  • Maamoun, Ahmed; Xue, Yi; Elbestawi, Mohamed
  • Materials, Vol. 12, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3390/ma12010012

3D Printed Acetabular Cups for Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Review Article
journal, June 2019


Evaluation of Support Structure Removability for Additively Manufactured Ti6Al4V Overhangs via Electron Beam Melting
journal, November 2019

  • Ameen, Wadea; Khan Mohammed, Muneer; Al-Ahmari, Abdulrahman
  • Metals, Vol. 9, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.3390/met9111211

Development of Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composites (BMGMC) by Additive Manufacturing: Modelling and Simulation – A Review: Part A
journal, June 2019


Additive Manufacturing of Titanium Alloys by Electron Beam Melting: A Review
journal, December 2017

  • Zhang, Lai-Chang; Liu, Yujing; Li, Shujun
  • Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 20, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/adem.201700842

Metal Alloys for Fusion-Based Additive Manufacturing
journal, February 2018

  • Zhang, Duyao; Sun, Shoujin; Qiu, Dong
  • Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 20, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/adem.201700952

Three-dimensional Printing for Catalytic Applications: Current Status and Perspectives
journal, June 2017


Evaluation of the impact of scanning strategies on residual stresses in selective laser melting
journal, February 2019

  • Mugwagwa, L.; Dimitrov, D.; Matope, S.
  • The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 102, Issue 5-8
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00170-019-03396-9

Mechanical characterisation of stainless steel parts produced by direct metal laser sintering with virgin and reused powder
journal, November 2019

  • Contaldi, V.; Del Re, F.; Palumbo, B.
  • The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 105, Issue 7-8
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00170-019-04416-4

Effects of powders and process parameters on density and hardness of A357 aluminum alloy fabricated by selective laser melting
journal, November 2019

  • Tonelli, Lavinia; Liverani, Erica; Valli, Giuseppe
  • The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 106, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00170-019-04641-x

Effect of Different Post-treatments on the Microstructure of EBM-Built Alloy 718
journal, October 2018

  • Goel, Sneha; Ahlfors, Magnus; Bahbou, Fouzi
  • Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 28, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11665-018-3712-0

Anisotropic Mechanical Behavior of AlSi10Mg Parts Produced by Selective Laser Melting
journal, January 2017


Machine Learning-Enabled Competitive Grain Growth Behavior Study in Directed Energy Deposition Fabricated Ti6Al4V
journal, November 2019


Optimal Design for Metal Additive Manufacturing: An Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) Approach
journal, January 2020


Direct metal additive manufacturing processes and their sustainable applications for green technology: A review
journal, October 2016

  • Ahn, Dong-Gyu
  • International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, Vol. 3, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s40684-016-0048-9

Spall fracture in additive manufactured tantalum
journal, December 2018

  • Jones, D. R.; Fensin, S. J.; Ndefru, B. G.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.5063930

The impact of powder oxygen content on formability of 12CrNi2 alloy steel fabricated by laser melting deposition
journal, May 2019


Modelling of selective laser melting process with adaptive remeshing
journal, February 2019


On the use of metastable interface equilibrium assumptions on prediction of solidification micro-segregation in laser powder bed fusion
journal, April 2019

  • Abreu Faria, Guilherme; Kadirvel, Kamalnath; Hinojos, Alejandro
  • Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 24, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1080/13621718.2019.1608406

Process defects and in situ monitoring methods in metal powder bed fusion: a review
journal, February 2017

  • Grasso, Marco; Colosimo, Bianca Maria
  • Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 28, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6501/aa5c4f

Fatigue behaviors of laser hybrid welded AA7020 due to defects via synchrotron X‐ray microtomography
journal, June 2019

  • Wu, Sheng‐Chuan; Hu, Ya‐Nan; Song, Zhe
  • Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, Vol. 42, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1111/ffe.13031

Layerwise Anomaly Detection in Laser Powder-Bed Fusion Metal Additive Manufacturing
journal, January 2019

  • Mahmoudi, Mohamad; Ezzat, Ahmed Aziz; Elwany, Alaa
  • Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. 141, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4042108

Mesoscale design of heterogeneous material systems in multi-material additive manufacturing
journal, August 2017

  • Garcia, David; Jones, Mackenzie E.; Zhu, Yunhui
  • Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 33, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2017.328

Application of Directed Energy Deposition-Based Additive Manufacturing in Repair
journal, August 2019

  • Saboori, Abdollah; Aversa, Alberta; Marchese, Giulio
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.3390/app9163316

Effect of Build Orientation on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser-Melted Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
journal, October 2018

  • Hartunian, Patrick; Eshraghi, Mohsen
  • Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, Vol. 2, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.3390/jmmp2040069

Metal Additive Manufacturing Cycle in Aerospace Industry: A Comprehensive Review
journal, June 2019

  • Barroqueiro, B.; Andrade-Campos, A.; Valente, R. A. F.
  • Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, Vol. 3, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.3390/jmmp3030052

Investigation on Porosity and Microhardness of 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting
journal, February 2017

  • Yusuf, Shahir; Chen, Yifei; Boardman, Richard
  • Metals, Vol. 7, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3390/met7020064

Effects of Platform Pre-Heating and Thermal-Treatment Strategies on Properties of AlSi10Mg Alloy Processed by Selective Laser Melting
journal, November 2018

  • Casati, Riccardo; Hamidi Nasab, Milad; Coduri, Mauro
  • Metals, Vol. 8, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.3390/met8110954

Effect of Surface and Subsurface Defects on Fatigue Behavior of AlSi10Mg Alloy Processed by Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF)
journal, September 2019

  • Hamidi Nasab, Milad; Giussani, Alessandro; Gastaldi, Dario
  • Metals, Vol. 9, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.3390/met9101063

Influence of Process Parameters and Deposition Strategy on Laser Metal Deposition of 316L Powder
journal, October 2019

  • Mazzucato, Federico; Aversa, Alberta; Doglione, Roberto
  • Metals, Vol. 9, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.3390/met9111160

Additive manufacturing of titanium alloys in the biomedical field: processes, properties and applications
journal, August 2017

  • Trevisan, Francesco; Calignano, Flaviana; Aversa, Alberta
  • Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5301/jabfm.5000371

Solid State Porous Metal Production: A Review of the Capabilities, Characteristics, and Challenges
journal, January 2018

  • Atwater, Mark A.; Guevara, Laura N.; Darling, Kris A.
  • Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 20, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/adem.201700766

Studying Stability of Atom Packing for Ti Nanoparticles on Heating by Molecular Dynamics Simulations
journal, August 2018


The role of side-branching in microstructure development in laser powder-bed fusion
journal, February 2020


Ultrafast X-ray imaging of laser–metal additive manufacturing processes
journal, August 2018

  • Parab, Niranjan D.; Zhao, Cang; Cunningham, Ross
  • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 25, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1107/s1600577518009554

Sensor-Based Build Condition Monitoring in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing Process Using a Spectral Graph Theoretic Approach
journal, June 2018

  • Montazeri, Mohammad; Rao, Prahalada
  • Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. 140, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4040264

Influence of Si Content on the Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Additive Manufactured Al-Si Alloys
journal, January 2018

  • Revilla, Reynier I.; De Graeve, Iris
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 165, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0101814jes

An Overview of Additive Manufacturing of Titanium Components by Directed Energy Deposition: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties
journal, August 2017

  • Saboori, Abdollah; Gallo, Donato; Biamino, Sara
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 7, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.3390/app7090883

State of the Art in Directed Energy Deposition: From Additive Manufacturing to Materials Design
journal, June 2019


The Hardness of Additively Manufactured Alloys
journal, October 2018


Can Appropriate Thermal Post-Treatment Make Defect Content in as-Built Electron Beam Additively Manufactured Alloy 718 Irrelevant?
journal, January 2020

  • Goel, Sneha; Bourreau, Kévin; Olsson, Jonas
  • Materials, Vol. 13, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.3390/ma13030536

Wear and Cavitation Erosion Resistance of an AlMgSc Alloy Produced by DMLS
journal, March 2019

  • Tocci, Marialaura; Pola, Annalisa; Girelli, Luca
  • Metals, Vol. 9, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.3390/met9030308

Rapid fabrication of ion optics by selective laser melting
journal, March 2019

  • Sangregorio, Miguel; Wang, Ningfei; Xie, Kan
  • Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 25, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1108/rpj-05-2017-0085

Mechanical Properties of High-Speed Steel AISI M50 Produced by Laser Powder Bed Fusion
text, January 2019


Laser‐Based Additive Manufacturing Technologies for Aerospace Applications
journal, September 2019

  • Tepylo, Nick; Huang, Xiao; Patnaik, Prakash C.
  • Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 21, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/adem.201900617

Additive Manufacturing of Nickel Superalloys: Opportunities for Innovation and Challenges Related to Qualification
journal, June 2018

  • Babu, S. S.; Raghavan, N.; Raplee, J.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 49, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-018-4702-4

Programmable Mechanical Properties of Two‐Photon Polymerized Materials: From Nanowires to Bulk
journal, June 2019

  • Bauer, Jens; Guell Izard, Anna; Zhang, Yunfei
  • Advanced Materials Technologies, Vol. 4, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/admt.201900146

Dynamic simulation of powder packing structure for powder bed additive manufacturing
journal, February 2018

  • Lee, Y. S.; Nandwana, P.; Zhang, W.
  • The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 96, Issue 1-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00170-018-1697-3

The third Sandia fracture challenge: predictions of ductile fracture in additively manufactured metal
journal, July 2019

  • Kramer, Sharlotte L. B.; Jones, Amanda; Mostafa, Ahmed
  • International Journal of Fracture, Vol. 218, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10704-019-00361-1

Characterization of the Effects of Internal Pores on Tensile Properties of Additively Manufactured Austenitic Stainless Steel 316L
journal, December 2018


Comparison of virgin and reused 15-5 PH stainless steel powders for laser powder bed fusion process
journal, January 2018


In-Process Monitoring of Material Cross-Contamination Defects in Laser Powder Bed Fusion
journal, July 2018

  • Montazeri, Mohammad; Yavari, Reza; Rao, Prahalada
  • Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. 140, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4040543

Additive Techniques to Refurbish Ni Based Components
journal, January 2019

  • Cardozo, Eloisa Pereira; Pardal, Gonçalo Rodrigues; Ríos, Sergio
  • Soldagem & Inspeção, Vol. 24
  • DOI: 10.1590/0104-9224/si24.03

Surface deformations in dynamic thermocapillary convection under partial slip.
text, January 2019

  • Kowal, Katarzyna; Davis, Stephen H.; Voorhees, Peter W.
  • Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
  • DOI: 10.17863/cam.45334

Effect of SLM Build Parameters on the Compressive Properties of 304L Stainless Steel
journal, June 2019

  • Fashanu, Okanmisope; Buchely, Mario F.; Spratt, Myranda
  • Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, Vol. 3, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3390/jmmp3020043

Post-Processing Improvements for Mechanical, Microstructure, and Surface Properties of Steel
journal, February 2020


Development of Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composites (BMGMC) by Additive Manufacturing: Modelling and Simulation – A Review: Part B
journal, June 2019


Single-Track Melt-Pool Measurements and Microstructures in Inconel 625
text, January 2018


Simulation of temperature, stress and microstructure fields during laser deposition of Ti-6Al-4V
text, January 2018