skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Current and surface charge modified hysteresis loops in ferroelectric thin films

Abstract

Polarization domains in ferroelectric materials and the ability to orient them with an external electric field lead to the development of a variety of applications from information storage to actuation. The development of piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) has enabled researchers to investigate ferroelectric domains and ferroelectric domain switching on the nanoscale, which offers a pathway to study structure-function relationships in this important material class. Due to its commercial availability and ease of use, PFM has become a widely used research tool. However, measurement artifacts, i.e., alternative signal origins besides the piezoelectric effect are barely discussed or considered. This becomes especially important for materials with a small piezoelectric coefficient or materials with unknown ferroelectric properties, including non-ferroelectric materials. Here, the role of surface charges and current flow during PFM measurements on classical ferroelectrics are discussed and it will be shown how they alter the PFM hysteresis loop shape. This will help to better address alternative signal origins in PFM-type experiments and offer a pathway to study additional phenomena besides ferroelectricity.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1265701
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 118; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Atomic force microscopy; Electric measurements; Ferroelectric materials; Electrical hysteresis; Surface charge

Citation Formats

Balke Wisinger, Nina, Jesse, Stephen, Maksymovych, Petro, Okatan, Mahmut Baris, Strelcov, Evgheni, Tselev, Alexander, and Kalinin, Sergei. Current and surface charge modified hysteresis loops in ferroelectric thin films. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4927811.
Balke Wisinger, Nina, Jesse, Stephen, Maksymovych, Petro, Okatan, Mahmut Baris, Strelcov, Evgheni, Tselev, Alexander, & Kalinin, Sergei. Current and surface charge modified hysteresis loops in ferroelectric thin films. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4927811.
Balke Wisinger, Nina, Jesse, Stephen, Maksymovych, Petro, Okatan, Mahmut Baris, Strelcov, Evgheni, Tselev, Alexander, and Kalinin, Sergei. Wed . "Current and surface charge modified hysteresis loops in ferroelectric thin films". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4927811. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1265701.
@article{osti_1265701,
title = {Current and surface charge modified hysteresis loops in ferroelectric thin films},
author = {Balke Wisinger, Nina and Jesse, Stephen and Maksymovych, Petro and Okatan, Mahmut Baris and Strelcov, Evgheni and Tselev, Alexander and Kalinin, Sergei},
abstractNote = {Polarization domains in ferroelectric materials and the ability to orient them with an external electric field lead to the development of a variety of applications from information storage to actuation. The development of piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) has enabled researchers to investigate ferroelectric domains and ferroelectric domain switching on the nanoscale, which offers a pathway to study structure-function relationships in this important material class. Due to its commercial availability and ease of use, PFM has become a widely used research tool. However, measurement artifacts, i.e., alternative signal origins besides the piezoelectric effect are barely discussed or considered. This becomes especially important for materials with a small piezoelectric coefficient or materials with unknown ferroelectric properties, including non-ferroelectric materials. Here, the role of surface charges and current flow during PFM measurements on classical ferroelectrics are discussed and it will be shown how they alter the PFM hysteresis loop shape. This will help to better address alternative signal origins in PFM-type experiments and offer a pathway to study additional phenomena besides ferroelectricity.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4927811},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = ,
volume = 118,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 17 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Exploring Local Electrostatic Effects with Scanning Probe Microscopy: Implications for Piezoresponse Force Microscopy and Triboelectricity
journal, October 2014

  • Balke, Nina; Maksymovych, Petro; Jesse, Stephen
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 8, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn505176a

Polarization imprint and size effects in mesoscopic ferroelectric structures
journal, July 2001

  • Alexe, M.; Harnagea, C.; Hesse, D.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 79, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1385184

The band excitation method in scanning probe microscopy for rapid mapping of energy dissipation on the nanoscale
journal, September 2007


Piezoelectric Characterization of Individual Zinc Oxide Nanobelt Probed by Piezoresponse Force Microscope
journal, April 2004

  • Zhao, Min-Hua; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Mao, Scott X.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 4, Issue 4, p. 587-590
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl035198a

Nanoscale Electromechanics of Ferroelectric and Biological Systems: A New Dimension in Scanning Probe Microscopy
journal, August 2007


Half-harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy with transfer function correction
journal, February 2012

  • Guo, Senli; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3684274

Mechanically-Induced Resistive Switching in Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions
journal, February 2012

  • Lu, H.; Kim, D. J.; Bark, C. -W.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 12, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl303396n

Switching properties of self-assembled ferroelectric memory cells
journal, August 1999

  • Alexe, M.; Gruverman, A.; Harnagea, C.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 75, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.124628

Dual-frequency resonance-tracking atomic force microscopy
journal, October 2007


Ferroelectric Memories
journal, December 1989


Ferroelectric perovskites for electromechanical actuation
journal, November 2003


Injection charge assisted polarization reversal in ferroelectric thin films
journal, February 2007

  • Kim, Yunseok; Bühlmann, Simon; Hong, Seungbum
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2679902

Principle of ferroelectric domain imaging using atomic force microscope
journal, January 2001

  • Hong, Seungbum; Woo, Jungwon; Shin, Hyunjung
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 89, Issue 2, p. 1377-1386
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1331654

Unraveling Deterministic Mesoscopic Polarization Switching Mechanisms: Spatially Resolved Studies of a Tilt Grain Boundary in Bismuth Ferrite
journal, July 2009

  • Rodriguez, Brian J.; Choudhury, Samrat; Chu, Y. H.
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 19, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200900100

Ferroelectric materials for electromechanical transducer applications
journal, February 1996


Resonance enhancement in piezoresponse force microscopy: Mapping electromechanical activity, contact stiffness, and Q factor
journal, July 2006

  • Jesse, Stephen; Mirman, Boris; Kalinin, Sergei V.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 89, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2221496

Ferroelectrics at the nanoscale
journal, April 2009


Electric modulation of conduction in multiferroic Ca-doped BiFeO3 films
journal, April 2009

  • Yang, C. -H.; Seidel, J.; Kim, S. Y.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 8, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2432

Unified equations for the slope, intercept, and standard errors of the best straight line
journal, March 2004

  • York, Derek; Evensen, Norman M.; Martı́nez, Margarita López
  • American Journal of Physics, Vol. 72, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1119/1.1632486

Piezoresponse force microscopy and recent advances in nanoscale studies of ferroelectrics
journal, January 2006


Piezoresponse Force Microscopy: A Window into Electromechanical Behavior at the Nanoscale
journal, September 2009

  • Bonnell, D. A.; Kalinin, S. V.; Kholkin, A. L.
  • MRS Bulletin, Vol. 34, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1557/mrs2009.176

Piezoresponse force microscopy of lead titanate nanograins possibly reaching the limit of ferroelectricity
journal, December 2002

  • Roelofs, A.; Schneller, T.; Szot, K.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 81, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1534412

Scanning force microscopy for the study of domain structure in ferroelectric thin films
journal, March 1996

  • Gruverman, A.
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 14, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.589143

Electromechanical Imaging and Spectroscopy of Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Materials: State of the Art and Prospects for the Future
journal, August 2009


Quantitative mapping of switching behavior in piezoresponse force microscopy
journal, July 2006

  • Jesse, Stephen; Lee, Ho Nyung; Kalinin, Sergei V.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 77, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2214699

Polarization Control of Electron Tunneling into Ferroelectric Surfaces
journal, June 2009


Room-Temperature Ferroelectric Resistive Switching in Ultrathin Pb(Zr 0.2 Ti 0.8 )O 3 Films
journal, June 2011

  • Pantel, Daniel; Goetze, Silvana; Hesse, Dietrich
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 5, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn2018528

Launching into The Great New Millennium. Piezoelectric Films for MEMS Applications.
journal, January 2001


Screen charge transfer by grounded tip on ferroelectric surfaces
journal, March 2008

  • Kim, Yunseok; Kim, Jiyoon; Bühlmann, Simon
  • physica status solidi (RRL) – Rapid Research Letters, Vol. 2, Issue 2, p. 74-76
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200701265

Origin of surface potential change during ferroelectric switching in epitaxial PbTiO3 thin films studied by scanning force microscopy
journal, January 2009

  • Kim, Yunseok; Bae, Changdeuck; Ryu, Kyunghee
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, Issue 3, Article No. 032907
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3046786

Imaging mechanism of piezoresponse force microscopy of ferroelectric surfaces
journal, March 2002


Direct studies of domain switching dynamics in thin film ferroelectric capacitors
journal, August 2005

  • Gruverman, A.; Rodriguez, B. J.; Dehoff, C.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 87, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2010605

Nonlinear Phenomena in Multiferroic Nanocapacitors: Joule Heating and Electromechanical Effects
journal, October 2011

  • Kim, Yunseok; Kumar, Amit; Tselev, Alexander
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 5, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn203342v

Switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy of ferroelectric materials
journal, February 2006

  • Jesse, Stephen; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Kalinin, Sergei V.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2172216

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Ferroelectric or non-ferroelectric: Why so many materials exhibit “ferroelectricity” on the nanoscale
    journal, June 2017

    • Vasudevan, Rama K.; Balke, Nina; Maksymovych, Peter
    • Applied Physics Reviews, Vol. 4, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4979015