skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

Abstract

Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2more » standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [5];  [2];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [2];  [2];  [9];  [7];  [12];  [13];  [14] more »;  [15];  [16];  [7];  [2] « less
  1. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)
  2. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)
  3. Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai (China)
  4. Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
  5. Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  6. Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Coal Chemistry
  7. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  8. Appalachian State Univ., Boone, NC (United States)
  9. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  10. Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
  11. Peking Univ., Beijing (China)
  12. Center for International Climate and Energy Research (CICERO), Oslo (Norway)
  13. Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China)
  14. Beijing Forestry Univ., Beijing (China)
  15. Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)
  16. Nanjing Univ. (China)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1265649
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature (London)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Nature (London); Journal Volume: 524; Journal Issue: 7565; Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Climate-change mitigation; Sustainability; Climate-change policy

Citation Formats

Liu, Z., Guan, D., Wei, W., Davis, S., Ciais, P., Bai, J, Peng, S., Zhang, Q., Hubacek, K., Marland, Gregg, Andres, Robert Joseph, Crawford-Brown, D., Lin, J., Zhao, H., Hong, C., Boden, Thomas A., Feng, K., Peters, Glen P., Xi, F., Liu, J., Li, Y., Zhao, Y., Zeng, Ning, and He, K. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1038/nature14677.
Liu, Z., Guan, D., Wei, W., Davis, S., Ciais, P., Bai, J, Peng, S., Zhang, Q., Hubacek, K., Marland, Gregg, Andres, Robert Joseph, Crawford-Brown, D., Lin, J., Zhao, H., Hong, C., Boden, Thomas A., Feng, K., Peters, Glen P., Xi, F., Liu, J., Li, Y., Zhao, Y., Zeng, Ning, & He, K. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14677
Liu, Z., Guan, D., Wei, W., Davis, S., Ciais, P., Bai, J, Peng, S., Zhang, Q., Hubacek, K., Marland, Gregg, Andres, Robert Joseph, Crawford-Brown, D., Lin, J., Zhao, H., Hong, C., Boden, Thomas A., Feng, K., Peters, Glen P., Xi, F., Liu, J., Li, Y., Zhao, Y., Zeng, Ning, and He, K. Wed . "Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14677. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1265649.
@article{osti_1265649,
title = {Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China},
author = {Liu, Z. and Guan, D. and Wei, W. and Davis, S. and Ciais, P. and Bai, J and Peng, S. and Zhang, Q. and Hubacek, K. and Marland, Gregg and Andres, Robert Joseph and Crawford-Brown, D. and Lin, J. and Zhao, H. and Hong, C. and Boden, Thomas A. and Feng, K. and Peters, Glen P. and Xi, F. and Liu, J. and Li, Y. and Zhao, Y. and Zeng, Ning and He, K.},
abstractNote = {Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).},
doi = {10.1038/nature14677},
journal = {Nature (London)},
number = 7565,
volume = 524,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 148 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

A low-carbon road map for China
journal, August 2013

  • Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Crawford-Brown, Douglas
  • Nature, Vol. 500, Issue 7461
  • DOI: 10.1038/500143a

Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases over Asian regions during 2000–2008: Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2
journal, January 2013


A Large and Persistent Carbon Sink in the World's Forests
journal, July 2011


The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China
journal, April 2009

  • Piao, Shilong; Fang, Jingyun; Ciais, Philippe
  • Nature, Vol. 458, Issue 7241
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature07944

China: Emissions pattern of the world leader in CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement production
journal, January 2008

  • Gregg, Jay S.; Andres, Robert J.; Marland, Gregg
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GL032887

A new evaluation of the uncertainty associated with CDIAC estimates of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission
journal, January 2014

  • Andres, Robert J.; Boden, Thomas A.; Higdon, David
  • Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, Vol. 66, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3402/tellusb.v66.23616

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion
journal, January 2012


The gigatonne gap in China’s carbon dioxide inventories
journal, June 2012


China's CO2 emissions estimated from the bottom up: Recent trends, spatial distributions, and quantification of uncertainties
journal, November 2012


Decreasing emissions of NOx relative to CO2 in East Asia inferred from satellite observations
journal, September 2014

  • Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Hilboll, A.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 7, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2257

Detection from space of a reduction in anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides during the Chinese economic downturn
journal, January 2011


Establishment of a database of emission factors for atmospheric pollutants from Chinese coal-fired power plants
journal, April 2010


Factory-level measurements on CO2 emission factors of cement production in China
journal, June 2014


Refined estimate of China's CO 2 emissions in spatiotemporal distributions
journal, January 2013


Estimation of CO2 emissions from China’s cement production: Methodologies and uncertainties
journal, June 2013


Global carbon budget 2014
journal, January 2014

  • Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.
  • Earth System Science Data Discussions, Vol. 7, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/essdd-7-521-2014

Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions
journal, September 2014

  • Raupach, Michael R.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 4, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2384

Climate policy: Steps to China's carbon peak
journal, June 2015

  • Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Moore, Scott
  • Nature, Vol. 522, Issue 7556
  • DOI: 10.1038/522279a

Accuracy and reliability of China's energy statistics
journal, January 2001


China's uncertain CO2 emissions
journal, August 2012


China Fights Against Statistical Corruption
journal, August 2009


The quality of China's GDP statistics
journal, September 2014


What is happening to China's GDP statistics?
journal, January 2001


A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion
journal, January 2012

  • Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Bréon, F. -M.
  • Biogeosciences Discussions, Vol. 9, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/bgd-9-1299-2012

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The Paris Agreement: China’s ‘New Normal’ role in international climate negotiations
    journal, October 2016


    A comprehensive estimate of recent carbon sinks in China using both top-down and bottom-up approaches
    journal, February 2016

    • Jiang, Fei; Chen, Jing M.; Zhou, Lingxi
    • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/srep22130

    Historical (1750–2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS)
    journal, January 2018

    • Hoesly, Rachel M.; Smith, Steven J.; Feng, Leyang
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 11, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-11-369-2018

    Paris INDCs
    book, January 2017


    Evaluation and mitigation of cement CO2 emissions: projection of emission scenarios toward 2030 in China and proposal of the roadmap to a low-carbon world by 2050
    journal, June 2018

    • Wei, Junxiao; Cen, Kuang; Geng, Yuanbo
    • Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Vol. 24, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11027-018-9813-0

    Implications of overestimated anthropogenic CO2 emissions on East Asian and global land CO2 flux inversion
    dataset, May 2017


    A Fe-C-Ca big cycle in modern carbon-intensive industries: toward emission reduction and resource utilization
    journal, February 2016

    • Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Seetharaman, Seshadri
    • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/srep22323

    Systematic error and uncertain carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. power plants
    journal, March 2019


    Regional uncertainty of GOSAT XCO 2 retrievals in China: quantification and attribution
    journal, January 2018

    • Bie, Nian; Lei, Liping; Zeng, ZhaoCheng
    • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 11, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.5194/amt-11-1251-2018

    An emissions-socioeconomic inventory of Chinese cities
    journal, February 2019


    Characterizing the Embodied Carbon Emissions Flows and Ecological Relationships among Four Chinese Megacities and Other Provinces
    journal, May 2019

    • Wang, Xuecheng; Tang, Xu; Feng, Zhenhua
    • Sustainability, Vol. 11, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.3390/su11092591

    Inventory of anthropogenic methane emissions in mainland China from 1980 to 2010
    journal, January 2016

    • Peng, Shushi; Piao, Shilong; Bousquet, Philippe
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 16, Issue 22
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-16-14545-2016

    Aerosol optical depth thresholds as a tool to assess diffuse radiation fertilization of the land carbon uptake in China
    journal, January 2017


    Global Carbon Budget 2016
    journal, January 2016

    • Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.
    • Earth System Science Data, Vol. 8, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.5194/essd-8-605-2016

    Evaluation and mitigation of cement CO2 emissions: projection of emission scenarios toward 2030 in China and proposal of the roadmap to a low-carbon world by 2050
    journal, June 2018

    • Wei, Junxiao; Cen, Kuang; Geng, Yuanbo
    • Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Vol. 24, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11027-018-9813-0

    An emissions-socioeconomic inventory of Chinese cities
    journal, February 2019


    A comprehensive estimate of recent carbon sinks in China using both top-down and bottom-up approaches
    journal, February 2016

    • Jiang, Fei; Chen, Jing M.; Zhou, Lingxi
    • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/srep22130

    A Fe-C-Ca big cycle in modern carbon-intensive industries: toward emission reduction and resource utilization
    journal, February 2016

    • Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Seetharaman, Seshadri
    • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/srep22323

    Systematic error and uncertain carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. power plants
    journal, March 2019


    The Paris Agreement: China’s ‘New Normal’ role in international climate negotiations
    journal, October 2016


    Implications of overestimated anthropogenic CO2 emissions on East Asian and global land CO2 flux inversion
    dataset, May 2017


    Characterizing the Embodied Carbon Emissions Flows and Ecological Relationships among Four Chinese Megacities and Other Provinces
    journal, May 2019

    • Wang, Xuecheng; Tang, Xu; Feng, Zhenhua
    • Sustainability, Vol. 11, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.3390/su11092591

    Inventory of anthropogenic methane emissions in mainland China from 1980 to 2010
    journal, January 2016

    • Peng, Shushi; Piao, Shilong; Bousquet, Philippe
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 16, Issue 22
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-16-14545-2016

    Aerosol optical depth thresholds as a tool to assess diffuse radiation fertilization of the land carbon uptake in China
    journal, January 2017


    Regional uncertainty of GOSAT XCO 2 retrievals in China: quantification and attribution
    journal, January 2018

    • Bie, Nian; Lei, Liping; Zeng, ZhaoCheng
    • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 11, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.5194/amt-11-1251-2018

    Historical (1750–2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS)
    journal, January 2018

    • Hoesly, Rachel M.; Smith, Steven J.; Feng, Leyang
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 11, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-11-369-2018

    A space-based, high-resolution view of notable changes in urban NO x pollution around the world (2005-2014) : NOTABLE CHANGES IN URBAN NO
    journal, January 2016

    • Duncan, Bryan N.; Lamsal, Lok N.; Thompson, Anne M.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 121, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1002/2015jd024121

    Creating a Low‐Potential Redox Polymer for Efficient Electroenzymatic CO 2 Reduction
    journal, April 2018


    Creating a Low‐Potential Redox Polymer for Efficient Electroenzymatic CO 2 Reduction
    journal, May 2018

    • Yuan, Mengwei; Sahin, Selmihan; Cai, Rong
    • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 57, Issue 22
    • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201803397

    A panel co‐integration analysis for economic development, energy consumption, urbanization, and carbon dioxide emissions in China's six provinces
    journal, April 2019

    • Zhao, Haoran; Guo, Sen; Zhao, Huiru
    • Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, Vol. 38, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1002/ep.13247

    Key challenges for China's carbon emissions trading program
    journal, June 2019

    • Wang, Pu; Liu, Lei; Tan, Xianchun
    • Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change
    • DOI: 10.1002/wcc.599

    Cement production, environmental pollution, and economic growth: evidence from China and USA
    journal, January 2019


    Treating bituminous coal with ionic liquids to inhibit coal spontaneous combustion
    journal, August 2018

    • Xiao, Yang; Lü, Hui-Fei; Yi, Xin
    • Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 135, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1007/s10973-018-7600-5

    High-resolution spatial distribution and associated uncertainties of greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural sector
    journal, January 2018

    • Charkovska, Nadiia; Horabik-Pyzel, Joanna; Bun, Rostyslav
    • Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Vol. 24, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11027-017-9779-3

    Recent advances in microbial production of malic acid from renewable byproducts
    journal, July 2019

    • Iyyappan, J.; Baskar, G.; Gnansounou, Edgard
    • Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Vol. 18, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11157-019-09503-2

    Top-Down Constraints on Anthropogenic CO 2 Emissions Within an Agricultural-Urban Landscape
    journal, May 2018

    • Hu, Cheng; Griffis, Timothy J.; Lee, Xuhui
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 123, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1029/2017jd027881

    Frequent interactions of Tibet's CO 2 emissions with those of other regions in China
    journal, April 2019


    China's “Exported Carbon” Peak: Patterns, Drivers, and Implications
    journal, May 2018

    • Mi, Zhifu; Meng, Jing; Green, Fergus
    • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1029/2018gl077915

    Spatiotemporal Changes of China's Carbon Emissions
    journal, August 2018

    • Cai, Bofeng; Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe
    • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, Issue 16
    • DOI: 10.1029/2018gl079564

    Anthropogenic Methane Emission and Its Partitioning for the Yangtze River Delta Region of China
    journal, May 2019

    • Hu, Cheng; Griffis, Timothy J.; Liu, Shoudong
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 124, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1029/2018jg004850

    Targeted opportunities to address the climate–trade dilemma in China
    journal, September 2015

    • Liu, Zhu; Davis, Steven J.; Feng, Kuishuang
    • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2800

    Multiple carbon accounting to support just and effective climate policies
    journal, November 2015

    • Steininger, Karl W.; Lininger, Christian; Meyer, Lukas H.
    • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2867

    Reaching peak emissions
    journal, December 2015

    • Jackson, Robert B.; Canadell, Josep G.; Le Quéré, Corinne
    • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2892

    Uncertainties around reductions in China’s coal use and CO2 emissions
    journal, March 2016

    • Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.
    • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2963

    Unequal household carbon footprints in China
    journal, December 2016

    • Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Zhu
    • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 7, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate3165

    China's post-coal growth
    journal, July 2016

    • Qi, Ye; Stern, Nicholas; Wu, Tong
    • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2777

    The rise of South–South trade and its effect on global CO2 emissions
    journal, May 2018


    Consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions accounting with capital stock change highlights dynamics of fast-developing countries
    journal, September 2018


    Carbon and health implications of trade restrictions
    journal, October 2019


    Future scenarios for energy consumption and carbon emissions due to demographic transitions in Chinese households
    journal, January 2018


    Five decades of northern land carbon uptake revealed by the interhemispheric CO2 gradient
    journal, April 2019


    China CO2 emission accounts 2016–2017
    journal, February 2020


    Recent intensification of winter haze in China linked to foreign emissions and meteorology
    journal, February 2018


    Spatio-temporal variations and factors of a provincial PM2.5 pollution in eastern China during 2013–2017 by geostatistics
    journal, March 2019


    Targeted emission reductions from global super-polluting power plant units
    journal, January 2018


    China CO2 emission accounts 1997–2015
    journal, January 2018


    Uncertainty in projected climate change arising from uncertain fossil-fuel emission factors
    journal, March 2018


    Global energy growth is outpacing decarbonization
    journal, December 2018

    • Jackson, R. B.; Le Quéré, C.; Andrew, R. M.
    • Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/aaf303

    Trends in China's anthropogenic emissions since 2010 as the consequence of clean air actions
    journal, January 2018


    Global Carbon Budget 2018
    journal, January 2018

    • Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre
    • Earth System Science Data, Vol. 10, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.5194/essd-10-2141-2018

    Global Carbon Budget 2017
    journal, January 2018

    • Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre
    • Earth System Science Data, Vol. 10, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.5194/essd-10-405-2018

    Global Carbon Budget 2019
    journal, January 2019

    • Friedlingstein, Pierre; Jones, Matthew W.; O'Sullivan, Michael
    • Earth System Science Data, Vol. 11, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.5194/essd-11-1783-2019

    EDGAR v4.3.2 Global Atlas of the three major greenhouse gas emissions for the period 1970–2012
    journal, January 2019

    • Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Crippa, Monica; Guizzardi, Diego
    • Earth System Science Data, Vol. 11, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.5194/essd-11-959-2019