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Title: Differentiating Ferroelectric and Nonferroelectric Electromechanical Effects with Scanning Probe Microscopy

Ferroelectricity in functional materials remains one of the most fascinating areas of modern science in the past several decades. In the last several years, the rapid development of piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and spectroscopy revealed the presence of electromechanical hysteresis loops and bias-induced remnant polar states in a broad variety of materials including many inorganic oxides, polymers, and biosystems. In many cases, this behavior was interpreted as the ample evidence for ferroelectric nature of the system. Here, we systematically analyze PFM responses on ferroelectric and nonferroelectric materials and demonstrate that mechanisms unrelated to ferroelectricity can induce ferroelectric-like characteristics through charge injection and electrostatic forces on the tip. In this paper, we will focus on similarities and differences in various PFM measurement characteristics to provide an experimental guideline to differentiate between ferroelectric material properties and charge injection. In conclusion, we apply the developed measurement protocols to an unknown ferroelectric material.
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Inst. for Functional Imaging of Materials
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division
  3. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Materials Science and Engineering
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences
  5. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics. Dept. of Physics; Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako (Japan)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Nano
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1936-0851
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF); National Basic Research Program of China; National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC)
Country of Publication:
United States
OSTI Identifier: