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Title: Effect of oxidation of carbon material on suspension electrodes for flow electrode capacitive deionization

Abstract

Flow electrode deionization (FCDI) is an emerging area for continuous and scalable deionization, but the electrochemical and flow properties of the flow electrode need to be improved to minimize energy consumption. We examine chemical oxidation of granular activated carbon (AC) here to study the role of surface heteroatoms on rheology and electrochemical performance of a flow electrode (carbon slurry) for deionization processes. Moreover, it was demonstrated that higher mass densities could be used without increasing energy for pumping when using oxidized active material. High mass-loaded flow electrodes (28% carbon content) based on oxidized AC displayed similar viscosities (~21 Pa s) to lower mass-loaded flow electrodes (20% carbon content) based on nonoxidized AC. The 40% increased mass loading (from 20% to 28%) resulted in a 25% increase in flow electrode gravimetric capacitance (from 65 to 83 F g –1) without sacrificing flowability (viscosity). The electrical energy required to remove ~18% of the ions (desalt) from of the feed solution was observed to be significantly dependent on the mass loading and decreased (~60%) from 92 ± 7 to 28 ± 2.7 J with increased mass densities from 5 to 23 wt %. Finally, it is shown that the surface chemistry of themore » active material in a flow electrode effects the electrical and pumping energy requirements of a FCDI system.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  2. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1265345
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Environmental Science and Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 49; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-936X
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Hatzell, Kelsey B., Hatzell, Marta C., Cook, Kevin M., Boota, Muhammad, Housel, Gabrielle M., Mcbride, Alexander, Kumbur, E. Caglan, and Gogotsi, Yury. Effect of oxidation of carbon material on suspension electrodes for flow electrode capacitive deionization. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1021/es5055989.
Hatzell, Kelsey B., Hatzell, Marta C., Cook, Kevin M., Boota, Muhammad, Housel, Gabrielle M., Mcbride, Alexander, Kumbur, E. Caglan, & Gogotsi, Yury. Effect of oxidation of carbon material on suspension electrodes for flow electrode capacitive deionization. United States. doi:10.1021/es5055989.
Hatzell, Kelsey B., Hatzell, Marta C., Cook, Kevin M., Boota, Muhammad, Housel, Gabrielle M., Mcbride, Alexander, Kumbur, E. Caglan, and Gogotsi, Yury. Thu . "Effect of oxidation of carbon material on suspension electrodes for flow electrode capacitive deionization". United States. doi:10.1021/es5055989. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1265345.
@article{osti_1265345,
title = {Effect of oxidation of carbon material on suspension electrodes for flow electrode capacitive deionization},
author = {Hatzell, Kelsey B. and Hatzell, Marta C. and Cook, Kevin M. and Boota, Muhammad and Housel, Gabrielle M. and Mcbride, Alexander and Kumbur, E. Caglan and Gogotsi, Yury},
abstractNote = {Flow electrode deionization (FCDI) is an emerging area for continuous and scalable deionization, but the electrochemical and flow properties of the flow electrode need to be improved to minimize energy consumption. We examine chemical oxidation of granular activated carbon (AC) here to study the role of surface heteroatoms on rheology and electrochemical performance of a flow electrode (carbon slurry) for deionization processes. Moreover, it was demonstrated that higher mass densities could be used without increasing energy for pumping when using oxidized active material. High mass-loaded flow electrodes (28% carbon content) based on oxidized AC displayed similar viscosities (~21 Pa s) to lower mass-loaded flow electrodes (20% carbon content) based on nonoxidized AC. The 40% increased mass loading (from 20% to 28%) resulted in a 25% increase in flow electrode gravimetric capacitance (from 65 to 83 F g–1) without sacrificing flowability (viscosity). The electrical energy required to remove ~18% of the ions (desalt) from of the feed solution was observed to be significantly dependent on the mass loading and decreased (~60%) from 92 ± 7 to 28 ± 2.7 J with increased mass densities from 5 to 23 wt %. Finally, it is shown that the surface chemistry of the active material in a flow electrode effects the electrical and pumping energy requirements of a FCDI system.},
doi = {10.1021/es5055989},
journal = {Environmental Science and Technology},
number = 5,
volume = 49,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {1}
}

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