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Title: Grasses suppress shoot-borne roots to conserve water during drought

Many important crops are members of the Poaceae family, which develop root systems characterized by a high degree of root initiation from the belowground basal nodes of the shoot, termed the crown. Although this postembryonic shoot-borne root system represents the major conduit for water uptake, little is known about the effect of water availability on its development. Here in this study, we demonstrate that in the model C 4 grass Setaria viridis, the crown locally senses water availability and suppresses postemergence crown root growth under a water deficit. This response was observed in field and growth room environments and in all grass species tested. Luminescence-based imaging of root systems grown in soil-like media revealed a shift in root growth from crown-derived to primary root-derived branches, suggesting that primary root-dominated architecture can be induced in S. viridis under certain stress conditions. Crown roots of Zea mays and Setaria italica, domesticated relatives of teosinte and S. viridis, respectively, show reduced sensitivity to water deficit, suggesting that this response might have been influenced by human selection. Lastly, enhanced water status of maize mutants lacking crown roots suggests that under a water deficit, stronger suppression of crown roots actually may benefit crop productivity.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [5] ;  [4] ; ORCiD logo [6] ;  [4] ; ORCiD logo [7] ; ORCiD logo [4] ; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Carnegie Inst. of Science, Stanford, CA (United States)
  2. Carnegie Inst. of Science, Stanford, CA (United States); Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasilia (Brazil)
  3. Carnegie Inst. of Science, Stanford, CA (United States); Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Mexico)
  4. Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)
  5. Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)
  6. Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); US Department of Agriculture, St. Louis, MO (United States)
  7. Univ. of Bonn (Germany)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0008769
Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 113; Journal Issue: 31; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
Research Org:
Carnegie Inst. of Science, Stanford, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; root development; drought; Poaceae; Setaria; Zea mays
OSTI Identifier:
1263687
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1469568

Sebastian, Jose, Yee, Muh-Ching, Goudinho Viana, Willian, Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén, Feldman, Max, Priest, Henry D., Trontin, Charlotte, Lee, Tak, Jiang, Hui, Baxter, Ivan, Mockler, Todd C., Hochholdinger, Frank, Brutnell, Thomas P., and Dinneny, José R.. Grasses suppress shoot-borne roots to conserve water during drought. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1604021113.
Sebastian, Jose, Yee, Muh-Ching, Goudinho Viana, Willian, Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén, Feldman, Max, Priest, Henry D., Trontin, Charlotte, Lee, Tak, Jiang, Hui, Baxter, Ivan, Mockler, Todd C., Hochholdinger, Frank, Brutnell, Thomas P., & Dinneny, José R.. Grasses suppress shoot-borne roots to conserve water during drought. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1604021113.
Sebastian, Jose, Yee, Muh-Ching, Goudinho Viana, Willian, Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén, Feldman, Max, Priest, Henry D., Trontin, Charlotte, Lee, Tak, Jiang, Hui, Baxter, Ivan, Mockler, Todd C., Hochholdinger, Frank, Brutnell, Thomas P., and Dinneny, José R.. 2016. "Grasses suppress shoot-borne roots to conserve water during drought". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1604021113.
@article{osti_1263687,
title = {Grasses suppress shoot-borne roots to conserve water during drought},
author = {Sebastian, Jose and Yee, Muh-Ching and Goudinho Viana, Willian and Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén and Feldman, Max and Priest, Henry D. and Trontin, Charlotte and Lee, Tak and Jiang, Hui and Baxter, Ivan and Mockler, Todd C. and Hochholdinger, Frank and Brutnell, Thomas P. and Dinneny, José R.},
abstractNote = {Many important crops are members of the Poaceae family, which develop root systems characterized by a high degree of root initiation from the belowground basal nodes of the shoot, termed the crown. Although this postembryonic shoot-borne root system represents the major conduit for water uptake, little is known about the effect of water availability on its development. Here in this study, we demonstrate that in the model C4 grass Setaria viridis, the crown locally senses water availability and suppresses postemergence crown root growth under a water deficit. This response was observed in field and growth room environments and in all grass species tested. Luminescence-based imaging of root systems grown in soil-like media revealed a shift in root growth from crown-derived to primary root-derived branches, suggesting that primary root-dominated architecture can be induced in S. viridis under certain stress conditions. Crown roots of Zea mays and Setaria italica, domesticated relatives of teosinte and S. viridis, respectively, show reduced sensitivity to water deficit, suggesting that this response might have been influenced by human selection. Lastly, enhanced water status of maize mutants lacking crown roots suggests that under a water deficit, stronger suppression of crown roots actually may benefit crop productivity.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1604021113},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 31,
volume = 113,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {7}
}