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Title: Scaling Effects in Perovskite Ferroelectrics: Fundamental Limits and Process-Structure-Property Relations

Ferroelectric materials are well-suited for a variety of applications because they can offer a combination of high performance and scaled integration. Examples of note include piezoelectrics to transform between electrical and mechanical energies, capacitors used to store charge, electro-optic devices, and non-volatile memory storage. Accordingly, they are widely used as sensors, actuators, energy storage, and memory components, ultrasonic devices, and in consumer electronics products. Because these functional properties arise from a non-centrosymmetric crystal structure with spontaneous strain and a permanent electric dipole, the properties depend upon physical and electrical boundary conditions, and consequently, physical dimension. The change of properties with decreasing physical dimension is commonly referred to as a size effect. In thin films, size effects are widely observed, while in bulk ceramics, changes in properties from the values of large-grained specimens is most notable in samples with grain sizes below several microns. It is important to note that ferroelectricity typically persists to length scales of about 10 nm, but below this point is often absent. Despite the stability of ferroelectricity for dimensions greater than ~10 nm, the dielectric and piezoelectric coefficients of scaled ferroelectrics are suppressed relative to their bulk counterparts, in some cases by changes up to 80%.more » The loss of extrinsic contributions (domain and phase boundary motion) to the electromechanical response accounts for much of this suppression. In this article the current understanding of the underlying mechanisms for this behavior in perovskite ferroelectrics are reviewed. We focus on the intrinsic limits of ferroelectric response, the roles of electrical and mechanical boundary conditions, grain size and thickness effects, and extraneous effects related to processing. Ultimately, in many cases, multiple mechanisms combine to produce the observed scaling effects.« less
 [1] ; ORCiD logo [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electronic, Optical, and Nano Materials Dept.
  2. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept.of Materials Science and Engineering
  3. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0002-7820; 644848
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000; DMR-1410907; DMR-1207293; DMR-1409399
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of the American Ceramic Society; Journal ID: ISSN 0002-7820
American Ceramic Society
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); National Science Foundation (NSF)
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ferroelectricity/ferroelectric materials; thin films; grain size
OSTI Identifier: