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Title: Antenna-coupled TES bolometers used in BICEP2, Keck Array, and SPIDER

Abstract

We have developed antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor bolometers for a wide range of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimetry experiments, including Bicep2, Keck Array, and the balloon borne Spider. These detectors have reached maturity and this paper reports on their design principles, overall performance, and key challenges associated with design and production. Our detector arrays repeatedly produce spectral bands with 20%–30% bandwidth at 95, 150, or 230 GHz. The integrated antenna arrays synthesize symmetric co-aligned beams with controlled side-lobe levels. Cross-polarized response on boresight is typically $$\sim 0.5\%$$, consistent with cross-talk in our multiplexed readout system. End-to-end optical efficiencies in our cameras are routinely 35% or higher, with per detector sensitivities of NET ~ 300 $$\mu {{\rm{K}}}_{\mathrm{CMB}}\sqrt{{\rm{s}}}$$. Thanks to the scalability of this design, we have deployed 2560 detectors as 1280 matched pairs in Keck Array with a combined instantaneous sensitivity of $$\sim 9\;\mu {{\rm{K}}}_{\mathrm{CMB}}\sqrt{{\rm{s}}}$$, as measured directly from CMB maps in the 2013 season. Furthermore, similar arrays have recently flown in the Spider instrument, and development of this technology is ongoing.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Org.:
Bicep2, Keck Array, and Spider Collaborations
OSTI Identifier:
1263390
Report Number(s):
SLAC-PUB-16648
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; arXiv:1502.00619
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 812; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; astrophysics; ASTRO; cosmic background radiation; instrumentation: detectors; instrumentation: polarimeters; methods: laboratory: solid-state; techniques: polarimetric

Citation Formats

Ade, P. A. R., Aikin, R. W., Amiri, M., Barkats, D., Benton, S. J., Bischoff, C. A., Bock, J. J., Bonetti, J. A., Brevik, J. A., Buder, I., Bullock, E., Chattopadhyay, G., Davis, G., Day, P. K., Dowell, C. D., Duband, L., Filippini, J. P., Fliescher, S., Golwala, S. R., Halpern, M., Hasselfield, M., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hilton, G. C., Hristov, V., Hui, H., Irwin, K. D., Jones, W. C., Karkare, K. S., Kaufman, J. P., Keating, B. G., Kefeli, S., Kernasovskiy, S. A., Kovac, J. M., Kuo, C. L., LeDuc, H. G., Leitch, E. M., Llombart, N., Lueker, M., Mason, P., Megerian, K., Moncelsi, L., Netterfield, C. B., Nguyen, H. T., O’Brient, R., IV, R. W. Ogburn, Orlando, A., Pryke, C., Rahlin, A. S., Reintsema, C. D., Richter, S., Runyan, M. C., Schwarz, R., Sheehy, C. D., Staniszewski, Z. K., Sudiwala, R. V., Teply, G. P., Tolan, J. E., Trangsrud, A., Tucker, R. S., Turner, A. D., Vieregg, A. G., Weber, A., Wiebe, D. V., Wilson, P., Wong, C. L., Yoon, K. W., and Zmuidzinas, J. Antenna-coupled TES bolometers used in BICEP2, Keck Array, and SPIDER. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/812/2/176.
Ade, P. A. R., Aikin, R. W., Amiri, M., Barkats, D., Benton, S. J., Bischoff, C. A., Bock, J. J., Bonetti, J. A., Brevik, J. A., Buder, I., Bullock, E., Chattopadhyay, G., Davis, G., Day, P. K., Dowell, C. D., Duband, L., Filippini, J. P., Fliescher, S., Golwala, S. R., Halpern, M., Hasselfield, M., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hilton, G. C., Hristov, V., Hui, H., Irwin, K. D., Jones, W. C., Karkare, K. S., Kaufman, J. P., Keating, B. G., Kefeli, S., Kernasovskiy, S. A., Kovac, J. M., Kuo, C. L., LeDuc, H. G., Leitch, E. M., Llombart, N., Lueker, M., Mason, P., Megerian, K., Moncelsi, L., Netterfield, C. B., Nguyen, H. T., O’Brient, R., IV, R. W. Ogburn, Orlando, A., Pryke, C., Rahlin, A. S., Reintsema, C. D., Richter, S., Runyan, M. C., Schwarz, R., Sheehy, C. D., Staniszewski, Z. K., Sudiwala, R. V., Teply, G. P., Tolan, J. E., Trangsrud, A., Tucker, R. S., Turner, A. D., Vieregg, A. G., Weber, A., Wiebe, D. V., Wilson, P., Wong, C. L., Yoon, K. W., & Zmuidzinas, J. Antenna-coupled TES bolometers used in BICEP2, Keck Array, and SPIDER. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/812/2/176.
Ade, P. A. R., Aikin, R. W., Amiri, M., Barkats, D., Benton, S. J., Bischoff, C. A., Bock, J. J., Bonetti, J. A., Brevik, J. A., Buder, I., Bullock, E., Chattopadhyay, G., Davis, G., Day, P. K., Dowell, C. D., Duband, L., Filippini, J. P., Fliescher, S., Golwala, S. R., Halpern, M., Hasselfield, M., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hilton, G. C., Hristov, V., Hui, H., Irwin, K. D., Jones, W. C., Karkare, K. S., Kaufman, J. P., Keating, B. G., Kefeli, S., Kernasovskiy, S. A., Kovac, J. M., Kuo, C. L., LeDuc, H. G., Leitch, E. M., Llombart, N., Lueker, M., Mason, P., Megerian, K., Moncelsi, L., Netterfield, C. B., Nguyen, H. T., O’Brient, R., IV, R. W. Ogburn, Orlando, A., Pryke, C., Rahlin, A. S., Reintsema, C. D., Richter, S., Runyan, M. C., Schwarz, R., Sheehy, C. D., Staniszewski, Z. K., Sudiwala, R. V., Teply, G. P., Tolan, J. E., Trangsrud, A., Tucker, R. S., Turner, A. D., Vieregg, A. G., Weber, A., Wiebe, D. V., Wilson, P., Wong, C. L., Yoon, K. W., and Zmuidzinas, J. Tue . "Antenna-coupled TES bolometers used in BICEP2, Keck Array, and SPIDER". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/812/2/176. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1263390.
@article{osti_1263390,
title = {Antenna-coupled TES bolometers used in BICEP2, Keck Array, and SPIDER},
author = {Ade, P. A. R. and Aikin, R. W. and Amiri, M. and Barkats, D. and Benton, S. J. and Bischoff, C. A. and Bock, J. J. and Bonetti, J. A. and Brevik, J. A. and Buder, I. and Bullock, E. and Chattopadhyay, G. and Davis, G. and Day, P. K. and Dowell, C. D. and Duband, L. and Filippini, J. P. and Fliescher, S. and Golwala, S. R. and Halpern, M. and Hasselfield, M. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Hilton, G. C. and Hristov, V. and Hui, H. and Irwin, K. D. and Jones, W. C. and Karkare, K. S. and Kaufman, J. P. and Keating, B. G. and Kefeli, S. and Kernasovskiy, S. A. and Kovac, J. M. and Kuo, C. L. and LeDuc, H. G. and Leitch, E. M. and Llombart, N. and Lueker, M. and Mason, P. and Megerian, K. and Moncelsi, L. and Netterfield, C. B. and Nguyen, H. T. and O’Brient, R. and IV, R. W. Ogburn and Orlando, A. and Pryke, C. and Rahlin, A. S. and Reintsema, C. D. and Richter, S. and Runyan, M. C. and Schwarz, R. and Sheehy, C. D. and Staniszewski, Z. K. and Sudiwala, R. V. and Teply, G. P. and Tolan, J. E. and Trangsrud, A. and Tucker, R. S. and Turner, A. D. and Vieregg, A. G. and Weber, A. and Wiebe, D. V. and Wilson, P. and Wong, C. L. and Yoon, K. W. and Zmuidzinas, J.},
abstractNote = {We have developed antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor bolometers for a wide range of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimetry experiments, including Bicep2, Keck Array, and the balloon borne Spider. These detectors have reached maturity and this paper reports on their design principles, overall performance, and key challenges associated with design and production. Our detector arrays repeatedly produce spectral bands with 20%–30% bandwidth at 95, 150, or 230 GHz. The integrated antenna arrays synthesize symmetric co-aligned beams with controlled side-lobe levels. Cross-polarized response on boresight is typically $\sim 0.5\%$, consistent with cross-talk in our multiplexed readout system. End-to-end optical efficiencies in our cameras are routinely 35% or higher, with per detector sensitivities of NET ~ 300 $\mu {{\rm{K}}}_{\mathrm{CMB}}\sqrt{{\rm{s}}}$. Thanks to the scalability of this design, we have deployed 2560 detectors as 1280 matched pairs in Keck Array with a combined instantaneous sensitivity of $\sim 9\;\mu {{\rm{K}}}_{\mathrm{CMB}}\sqrt{{\rm{s}}}$, as measured directly from CMB maps in the 2013 season. Furthermore, similar arrays have recently flown in the Spider instrument, and development of this technology is ongoing.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/812/2/176},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 812,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {10}
}

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