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Title: Controlled Sculpture of Black Phosphorus Nanoribbons

Abstract

Black phosphorus (BP) is a highly anisotropic allotrope of phosphorus with high promise for fast functional electronics and optoelectronics. We demonstrate that high-resolution and controlled structural modification of few-layer BP along arbitrary crystal direction can be achieved with nanometer-scale precision on a few-minute timescales leading to the formation of sub-nm wide armchair and zigzag BP nanoribbons. The nanoribbons are assembled, along with nanopores and nanogaps, using a combination of mechanical-liquid exfoliation and in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning TEM nanosculpting. Here we report time-dependent structural properties of the one-dimensional systems under electron irradiation and probe their oxidation properties with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Finally, we demonstrate the use of STEM to controllably narrow and thin the nanoribbons until they break into nanogaps. The observations are rationalized using density functional theory for transition state calculations and electronic band-structure evolution for the various stages of the narrowing procedure. In particular, we predict that the sub- and few-nm wide BP nanoribbons realized experimentally possess clear one-dimensional quantum confinement, even when the systems are made up of a few layers. We find the demonstration of this procedure is key for the development of BP-based electronic, optoelectronic, thermoelectric, and other applications in reducedmore » dimensions.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [3];  [5];  [5];  [5];  [3];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  2. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of of Electrical and Systems Engineering
  3. Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS)
  5. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS); Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1260088
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; SC0001299; R21HG007856; FRI-1542707
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Nano
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1936-0851
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; armchair; few-layer black phosphorus; nanopore; nanoribbon; phosphorene; zigzag

Citation Formats

Masih Das, Paul, Danda, Gopinath, Cupo, Andrew, Parkin, William M., Liang, Liangbo, Kharche, Neerav, Ling, Xi, Huang, Shengxi, Dresselhaus, Mildred S., Meunier, Vincent, and Drndić, Marija. Controlled Sculpture of Black Phosphorus Nanoribbons. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1021/acsnano.6b02435.
Masih Das, Paul, Danda, Gopinath, Cupo, Andrew, Parkin, William M., Liang, Liangbo, Kharche, Neerav, Ling, Xi, Huang, Shengxi, Dresselhaus, Mildred S., Meunier, Vincent, & Drndić, Marija. Controlled Sculpture of Black Phosphorus Nanoribbons. United States. doi:10.1021/acsnano.6b02435.
Masih Das, Paul, Danda, Gopinath, Cupo, Andrew, Parkin, William M., Liang, Liangbo, Kharche, Neerav, Ling, Xi, Huang, Shengxi, Dresselhaus, Mildred S., Meunier, Vincent, and Drndić, Marija. Wed . "Controlled Sculpture of Black Phosphorus Nanoribbons". United States. doi:10.1021/acsnano.6b02435. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1260088.
@article{osti_1260088,
title = {Controlled Sculpture of Black Phosphorus Nanoribbons},
author = {Masih Das, Paul and Danda, Gopinath and Cupo, Andrew and Parkin, William M. and Liang, Liangbo and Kharche, Neerav and Ling, Xi and Huang, Shengxi and Dresselhaus, Mildred S. and Meunier, Vincent and Drndić, Marija},
abstractNote = {Black phosphorus (BP) is a highly anisotropic allotrope of phosphorus with high promise for fast functional electronics and optoelectronics. We demonstrate that high-resolution and controlled structural modification of few-layer BP along arbitrary crystal direction can be achieved with nanometer-scale precision on a few-minute timescales leading to the formation of sub-nm wide armchair and zigzag BP nanoribbons. The nanoribbons are assembled, along with nanopores and nanogaps, using a combination of mechanical-liquid exfoliation and in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning TEM nanosculpting. Here we report time-dependent structural properties of the one-dimensional systems under electron irradiation and probe their oxidation properties with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Finally, we demonstrate the use of STEM to controllably narrow and thin the nanoribbons until they break into nanogaps. The observations are rationalized using density functional theory for transition state calculations and electronic band-structure evolution for the various stages of the narrowing procedure. In particular, we predict that the sub- and few-nm wide BP nanoribbons realized experimentally possess clear one-dimensional quantum confinement, even when the systems are made up of a few layers. We find the demonstration of this procedure is key for the development of BP-based electronic, optoelectronic, thermoelectric, and other applications in reduced dimensions.},
doi = {10.1021/acsnano.6b02435},
journal = {ACS Nano},
number = 6,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {5}
}

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Works referencing / citing this record:

Emerging nanofabrication and quantum confinement techniques for 2D materials beyond graphene
journal, July 2018

  • Stanford, Michael G.; Rack, Philip D.; Jariwala, Deep
  • npj 2D Materials and Applications, Vol. 2, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41699-018-0065-3

Emerging nanofabrication and quantum confinement techniques for 2D materials beyond graphene
journal, July 2018

  • Stanford, Michael G.; Rack, Philip D.; Jariwala, Deep
  • npj 2D Materials and Applications, Vol. 2, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41699-018-0065-3