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Title: Leaner Lifted-Flame Combustion Enabled by the Use of an Oxygenated Fuel in an Optical CI Engine

Leaner lifted-flame combustion (LLFC) is a mixing-controlled combustion strategy for compression-ignition engines that does not produce soot because the equivalence ratio at the lift-off length, Φ(H), is less than or equal to approximately two. In addition to preventing soot formation, LLFC can simultaneously control emissions of nitrogen oxides because it is tolerant to the use of exhaust-gas recirculation for lowering in-cylinder temperatures. LLFC can be achieved through the use of oxygenated fuels and enhanced fuel/charge-gas mixing upstream of the lift-off length. Enhanced mixing can be obtained via higher injection pressures, smaller injector orifice diameters, lower intake-manifold and coolant temperatures, and/or more retarded injection timings. This study focuses on the effects of an oxygenated fuel blend (T50) made up of 50% by volume tri-propylene glycol mono-methyl ether with a #2 ULSD emissions-certification fuel (CFA), compared against baseline testing of the CFA fuel without the oxygenate. Experimental measurements include crank-angle resolved natural luminosity (NL) and chemiluminescence (CL) imaging diagnostics. EGR is simulated by adding nitrogen and carbon dioxide to the intake charge to produce a 16% intake-oxygen mole fraction (XO2), and results are compared against cases with no charge dilution (i.e., 21% XO2). Initial experiments with a two-hole tip achieved soot-free LLFCmore » at low loads with the T50 fuel, 240 MPa injection pressure, 50 °C intake-manifold temperature (IMT), 95 °C coolant temperature, and -5 crank-angle degree (CAD) after top-dead-center (ATDC) start of combustion (SOC) timing. The strategy was extended to more moderate loads by employing a 6-hole injector tip, where lowering the IMT to 30 °C, reducing the coolant temperature to 85 °C, and retarding the SOC timing to +5 CAD ATDC resulted in sustained LLFC at both 21% and 16% XO2 at up to 6.2 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure (gIMEP) with T50. The achievement of LLFC was confirmed by independent soot measurements using a smoke meter, spatially integrated natural luminosity from the NL diagnostics, and laser-induced incandescence for measuring soot volume fraction in the exhaust stream. In contrast to the results with T50, LLFC was not achieved under any of the test conditions with CFA. Combustion was stable under LLFC conditions, with a coefficient of variation of gIMEP less than 1.5%. Nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon emissions were also lowered by up to 25% each for LLFC with T50 relative to using the same operating conditions with CFA. Combustion noise was similarly reduced by 4-6 dBA, and ringing intensity by 60-80%, for LLFC with T50.« less
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  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1946-3944; 607883
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
SAE International Journal of Engines (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: SAE International Journal of Engines (Online); Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1946-3944
SAE International
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
Country of Publication:
United States
OSTI Identifier: