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Title: Discovery and spectroscopy of the young Jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager

Abstract

Directly detecting thermal emission from young extrasolar planets allows measurement of their atmospheric compositions and luminosities, which are influenced by their formation mechanisms. Using the Gemini Planet Imager, we discovered a planet orbiting the ~20-million-year-old star 51 Eridani at a projected separation of 13 astronomical units. Near-infrared observations show a spectrum with strong methane and water-vapor absorption. Modeling of the spectra and photometry yields a luminosity (normalized by the luminosity of the Sun) of 1.6 to 4.0 × 10–6 and an effective temperature of 600 to 750 K. For this age and luminosity, “hot-start” formation models indicate a mass twice that of Jupiter. Furthermore, this planet also has a sufficiently low luminosity to be consistent with the “cold-start” core-accretion process that may have formed Jupiter.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [2];  [9];  [12];  [13];  [10];  [2];  [14];  [15] more »;  [16];  [17];  [18];  [8];  [2];  [19];  [2];  [2];  [10];  [20];  [21];  [13];  [22];  [13];  [23];  [24];  [20];  [25];  [26];  [27];  [28];  [29];  [13];  [30];  [20];  [31];  [10];  [13];  [29];  [24];  [8];  [19];  [14];  [20];  [24];  [32];  [19];  [2];  [24];  [3];  [33];  [34];  [12];  [35];  [8];  [12];  [18];  [27];  [36];  [37];  [24];  [38];  [37];  [39];  [40];  [2];  [41];  [42];  [8];  [29];  [8];  [30];  [43];  [43];  [9];  [24];  [26];  [13] « less
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  4. Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
  5. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)
  6. National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC (Canada); Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)
  7. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  8. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)
  9. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
  10. Univ. de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)
  11. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  12. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  13. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  14. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States)
  15. The Univ. of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)
  16. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Subaru Telescope, Hilo, HI (United States)
  17. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Univ. of Herfordshire, Hatfield (United Kingdom)
  18. Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)
  19. Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)
  20. Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC (Canada)
  21. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble (France)
  22. Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  23. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  24. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
  25. Durham Univ., Durham (United Kingdom); Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)
  26. Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)
  27. Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)
  28. Univ. of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom)
  29. Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)
  30. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  31. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States)
  32. The Univ. of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
  33. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
  34. American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States)
  35. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
  36. College of Staten Island, City Univ. of New York, Staten Island, NY (United States); American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States)
  37. Univ. de Chile, Santiago (Chile)
  38. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States)
  39. Univ. Space Research Assoc., NASA/Armstrong Flight Research Center, Palmdale, CA (United States); Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)
  40. National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC (Canada)
  41. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
  42. Univ. of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)
  43. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1258658
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1274051
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-15-24933; LLNL-JRNL-678639
Journal ID: ISSN 0036-8075
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396; AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 350; Journal Issue: 6256; Journal ID: ISSN 0036-8075
Publisher:
AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Macintosh, B., Graham, J. R., Barman, T., De Rosa, R. J., Konopacky, Q., Marley, M. S., Marois, C., Nielsen, E. L., Pueyo, L., Rajan, A., Rameau, J., Saumon, D., Wang, J. J., Patience, J., Ammons, M., Arriaga, P., Artigau, E., Beckwith, S., Brewster, J., Bruzzone, S., Bulger, J., Burningham, B., Burrows, A. S., Chen, C., Chiang, E., Chilcote, J. K., Dawson, R. I., Dong, R., Doyon, R., Draper, Z. H., Duchene, G., Esposito, T. M., Fabrycky, D., Fitzgerald, M. P., Follette, K. B., Fortney, J. J., Gerard, B., Goodsell, S., Greenbaum, A. Z., Hibon, P., Hinkley, S., Cotten, T. H., Hung, L. -W., Ingraham, P., Johnson-Groh, M., Kalas, P., Lafreniere, D., Larkin, J. E., Lee, J., Line, M., Long, D., Maire, J., Marchis, F., Matthews, B. C., Max, C. E., Metchev, S., Millar-Blanchaer, M. A., Mittal, T., Morley, C. V., Morzinski, K. M., Murray-Clay, R., Oppenheimer, R., Palmer, D. W., Patel, R., Perrin, M. D., Poyneer, L. A., Rafikov, R. R., Rantakyro, F. T., Rice, E. L., Rojo, P., Rudy, A. R., Ruffio, J. -B., Ruiz, M. T., Sadakuni, N., Saddlemyer, L., Salama, M., Savransky, D., Schneider, A. C., Sivaramakrishnan, A., Song, I., Soummer, R., Thomas, S., Vasisht, G., Wallace, J. K., Ward-Duong, K., Wiktorowicz, S. J., Wolff, S. G., and Zuckerman, B.. Discovery and spectroscopy of the young Jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aac5891.
Macintosh, B., Graham, J. R., Barman, T., De Rosa, R. J., Konopacky, Q., Marley, M. S., Marois, C., Nielsen, E. L., Pueyo, L., Rajan, A., Rameau, J., Saumon, D., Wang, J. J., Patience, J., Ammons, M., Arriaga, P., Artigau, E., Beckwith, S., Brewster, J., Bruzzone, S., Bulger, J., Burningham, B., Burrows, A. S., Chen, C., Chiang, E., Chilcote, J. K., Dawson, R. I., Dong, R., Doyon, R., Draper, Z. H., Duchene, G., Esposito, T. M., Fabrycky, D., Fitzgerald, M. P., Follette, K. B., Fortney, J. J., Gerard, B., Goodsell, S., Greenbaum, A. Z., Hibon, P., Hinkley, S., Cotten, T. H., Hung, L. -W., Ingraham, P., Johnson-Groh, M., Kalas, P., Lafreniere, D., Larkin, J. E., Lee, J., Line, M., Long, D., Maire, J., Marchis, F., Matthews, B. C., Max, C. E., Metchev, S., Millar-Blanchaer, M. A., Mittal, T., Morley, C. V., Morzinski, K. M., Murray-Clay, R., Oppenheimer, R., Palmer, D. W., Patel, R., Perrin, M. D., Poyneer, L. A., Rafikov, R. R., Rantakyro, F. T., Rice, E. L., Rojo, P., Rudy, A. R., Ruffio, J. -B., Ruiz, M. T., Sadakuni, N., Saddlemyer, L., Salama, M., Savransky, D., Schneider, A. C., Sivaramakrishnan, A., Song, I., Soummer, R., Thomas, S., Vasisht, G., Wallace, J. K., Ward-Duong, K., Wiktorowicz, S. J., Wolff, S. G., & Zuckerman, B.. Discovery and spectroscopy of the young Jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager. United States. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aac5891
Macintosh, B., Graham, J. R., Barman, T., De Rosa, R. J., Konopacky, Q., Marley, M. S., Marois, C., Nielsen, E. L., Pueyo, L., Rajan, A., Rameau, J., Saumon, D., Wang, J. J., Patience, J., Ammons, M., Arriaga, P., Artigau, E., Beckwith, S., Brewster, J., Bruzzone, S., Bulger, J., Burningham, B., Burrows, A. S., Chen, C., Chiang, E., Chilcote, J. K., Dawson, R. I., Dong, R., Doyon, R., Draper, Z. H., Duchene, G., Esposito, T. M., Fabrycky, D., Fitzgerald, M. P., Follette, K. B., Fortney, J. J., Gerard, B., Goodsell, S., Greenbaum, A. Z., Hibon, P., Hinkley, S., Cotten, T. H., Hung, L. -W., Ingraham, P., Johnson-Groh, M., Kalas, P., Lafreniere, D., Larkin, J. E., Lee, J., Line, M., Long, D., Maire, J., Marchis, F., Matthews, B. C., Max, C. E., Metchev, S., Millar-Blanchaer, M. A., Mittal, T., Morley, C. V., Morzinski, K. M., Murray-Clay, R., Oppenheimer, R., Palmer, D. W., Patel, R., Perrin, M. D., Poyneer, L. A., Rafikov, R. R., Rantakyro, F. T., Rice, E. L., Rojo, P., Rudy, A. R., Ruffio, J. -B., Ruiz, M. T., Sadakuni, N., Saddlemyer, L., Salama, M., Savransky, D., Schneider, A. C., Sivaramakrishnan, A., Song, I., Soummer, R., Thomas, S., Vasisht, G., Wallace, J. K., Ward-Duong, K., Wiktorowicz, S. J., Wolff, S. G., and Zuckerman, B.. Fri . "Discovery and spectroscopy of the young Jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager". United States. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aac5891. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1258658.
@article{osti_1258658,
title = {Discovery and spectroscopy of the young Jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager},
author = {Macintosh, B. and Graham, J. R. and Barman, T. and De Rosa, R. J. and Konopacky, Q. and Marley, M. S. and Marois, C. and Nielsen, E. L. and Pueyo, L. and Rajan, A. and Rameau, J. and Saumon, D. and Wang, J. J. and Patience, J. and Ammons, M. and Arriaga, P. and Artigau, E. and Beckwith, S. and Brewster, J. and Bruzzone, S. and Bulger, J. and Burningham, B. and Burrows, A. S. and Chen, C. and Chiang, E. and Chilcote, J. K. and Dawson, R. I. and Dong, R. and Doyon, R. and Draper, Z. H. and Duchene, G. and Esposito, T. M. and Fabrycky, D. and Fitzgerald, M. P. and Follette, K. B. and Fortney, J. J. and Gerard, B. and Goodsell, S. and Greenbaum, A. Z. and Hibon, P. and Hinkley, S. and Cotten, T. H. and Hung, L. -W. and Ingraham, P. and Johnson-Groh, M. and Kalas, P. and Lafreniere, D. and Larkin, J. E. and Lee, J. and Line, M. and Long, D. and Maire, J. and Marchis, F. and Matthews, B. C. and Max, C. E. and Metchev, S. and Millar-Blanchaer, M. A. and Mittal, T. and Morley, C. V. and Morzinski, K. M. and Murray-Clay, R. and Oppenheimer, R. and Palmer, D. W. and Patel, R. and Perrin, M. D. and Poyneer, L. A. and Rafikov, R. R. and Rantakyro, F. T. and Rice, E. L. and Rojo, P. and Rudy, A. R. and Ruffio, J. -B. and Ruiz, M. T. and Sadakuni, N. and Saddlemyer, L. and Salama, M. and Savransky, D. and Schneider, A. C. and Sivaramakrishnan, A. and Song, I. and Soummer, R. and Thomas, S. and Vasisht, G. and Wallace, J. K. and Ward-Duong, K. and Wiktorowicz, S. J. and Wolff, S. G. and Zuckerman, B.},
abstractNote = {Directly detecting thermal emission from young extrasolar planets allows measurement of their atmospheric compositions and luminosities, which are influenced by their formation mechanisms. Using the Gemini Planet Imager, we discovered a planet orbiting the ~20-million-year-old star 51 Eridani at a projected separation of 13 astronomical units. Near-infrared observations show a spectrum with strong methane and water-vapor absorption. Modeling of the spectra and photometry yields a luminosity (normalized by the luminosity of the Sun) of 1.6 to 4.0 × 10–6 and an effective temperature of 600 to 750 K. For this age and luminosity, “hot-start” formation models indicate a mass twice that of Jupiter. Furthermore, this planet also has a sufficiently low luminosity to be consistent with the “cold-start” core-accretion process that may have formed Jupiter.},
doi = {10.1126/science.aac5891},
journal = {Science},
number = 6256,
volume = 350,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {10}
}

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    • Thao, Pa Chia; Mann, Andrew W.; Johnson, Marshall C.
    • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 159, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/ab579b

    Data Reduction and Image Reconstruction Techniques for Non-redundant Masking
    journal, November 2017


    A Quantitative Comparison of Exoplanet Catalogs
    text, January 2018


    Spectral and atmospheric characterization of 51 Eridani b using VLT/SPHERE
    text, January 2017


    Supervised Machine Learning for Intercomparison of Model Grids of Brown Dwarfs: Application to GJ 570D and the Epsilon Indi B Binary System
    text, January 2020

    • Oreshenko, Maria; Kitzmann, Daniel; Márquez-Neila, Pablo
    • American Astronomical Society
    • DOI: 10.7892/boris.142620