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Title: Influence of Constitution and Charge on Radical Pairing Interactions in Tris-radical Tricationic Complexes

Abstract

The results of a systematic investigation of trisradical tricationic complexes formed between cyclobis-(paraquat-p-phenylene) bisradical dicationic (CBPQT 2 (•+)) rings and a series of 18 dumbbells, containing centrally located 4,4'-bipyridinium radical cationic (BIPY •+) units within oligomethylene chains terminated for the most part by charged 3,5-dimethylpyridinium (PY +) and/or neutral 3,5- dimethylphenyl (PH) groups, are reported. The complexes were obtained by treating equimolar amounts of the CBPQT 4+ ring and the dumbbells containing BIPY 2+ units with zinc dust in acetonitrile solutions. Whereas UV–Vis–NIR spectra revealed absorption bands centered on ca. 1100 nm with quite different intensities for the 1:1 complexes depending on the constitutions and charges on the dumbbells, titration experiments showed that the association constants (K a) for complex formation vary over a wide range, from 800 M–1 for the weakest to 180 000 M –1 for the strongest. While Coulombic repulsions emanating from PY + groups located at the ends of some of the dumbbells undoubtedly contribute to the destabilization of the trisradical tricationic complexes, solid-state superstructures support the contention that those dumbbells with neutral PH groups at the ends of flexible and appropriately constituted links to the BIPY •+ units stand to gain some additional stabilization frommore » C–H···π interactions between the CBPQT 2(•+) rings and the PH termini on the dumbbells. The findings reported in this Article demonstrate how structural changes implemented remotely from the BIPY •+ units influence their non-covalent bonding interactions with CBPQT 2(•+) rings. Different secondary effects (Coulombic repulsions versus C–H···π interactions) are uncovered, and their contributions to both binding strengths associated with trisradical interactions and the kinetics of associations and dissociations are discussed at some length, supported by extensive DFT calculations at the M06-D3 level. Lastly, a fundamental understanding of molecular recognition in radical complexes has relevance when it comes to the design and synthesis of non-equilibrium systems.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [3];  [2];  [1]
  1. Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States
  2. Materials and Process Simulation Center (MC 139-74), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, United States
  3. Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States, Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States
  4. Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States, Department of Chemistry, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, United Kingdom
  5. Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States, Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 1, Padova 35131, Italy
  6. Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States, Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States
  7. Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States, Department of Molecular Biology and Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 185 Cambridge Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, United States, Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-IE-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1258502
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1260755
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0004993
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of the American Chemical Society Journal Volume: 138 Journal Issue: 26; Journal ID: ISSN 0002-7863
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Cheng, Chuyang, Cheng, Tao, Xiao, Hai, Krzyaniak, Matthew D., Wang, Yuping, McGonigal, Paul R., Frasconi, Marco, Barnes, Jonathan C., Fahrenbach, Albert C., Wasielewski, Michael R., Goddard, III, William A., and Stoddart, J. Fraser. Influence of Constitution and Charge on Radical Pairing Interactions in Tris-radical Tricationic Complexes. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1021/jacs.6b04343.
Cheng, Chuyang, Cheng, Tao, Xiao, Hai, Krzyaniak, Matthew D., Wang, Yuping, McGonigal, Paul R., Frasconi, Marco, Barnes, Jonathan C., Fahrenbach, Albert C., Wasielewski, Michael R., Goddard, III, William A., & Stoddart, J. Fraser. Influence of Constitution and Charge on Radical Pairing Interactions in Tris-radical Tricationic Complexes. United States. doi:10.1021/jacs.6b04343.
Cheng, Chuyang, Cheng, Tao, Xiao, Hai, Krzyaniak, Matthew D., Wang, Yuping, McGonigal, Paul R., Frasconi, Marco, Barnes, Jonathan C., Fahrenbach, Albert C., Wasielewski, Michael R., Goddard, III, William A., and Stoddart, J. Fraser. Wed . "Influence of Constitution and Charge on Radical Pairing Interactions in Tris-radical Tricationic Complexes". United States. doi:10.1021/jacs.6b04343.
@article{osti_1258502,
title = {Influence of Constitution and Charge on Radical Pairing Interactions in Tris-radical Tricationic Complexes},
author = {Cheng, Chuyang and Cheng, Tao and Xiao, Hai and Krzyaniak, Matthew D. and Wang, Yuping and McGonigal, Paul R. and Frasconi, Marco and Barnes, Jonathan C. and Fahrenbach, Albert C. and Wasielewski, Michael R. and Goddard, III, William A. and Stoddart, J. Fraser},
abstractNote = {The results of a systematic investigation of trisradical tricationic complexes formed between cyclobis-(paraquat-p-phenylene) bisradical dicationic (CBPQT2(•+)) rings and a series of 18 dumbbells, containing centrally located 4,4'-bipyridinium radical cationic (BIPY•+) units within oligomethylene chains terminated for the most part by charged 3,5-dimethylpyridinium (PY+) and/or neutral 3,5- dimethylphenyl (PH) groups, are reported. The complexes were obtained by treating equimolar amounts of the CBPQT4+ ring and the dumbbells containing BIPY2+ units with zinc dust in acetonitrile solutions. Whereas UV–Vis–NIR spectra revealed absorption bands centered on ca. 1100 nm with quite different intensities for the 1:1 complexes depending on the constitutions and charges on the dumbbells, titration experiments showed that the association constants (Ka) for complex formation vary over a wide range, from 800 M–1 for the weakest to 180 000 M–1 for the strongest. While Coulombic repulsions emanating from PY+ groups located at the ends of some of the dumbbells undoubtedly contribute to the destabilization of the trisradical tricationic complexes, solid-state superstructures support the contention that those dumbbells with neutral PH groups at the ends of flexible and appropriately constituted links to the BIPY•+ units stand to gain some additional stabilization from C–H···π interactions between the CBPQT2(•+) rings and the PH termini on the dumbbells. The findings reported in this Article demonstrate how structural changes implemented remotely from the BIPY•+ units influence their non-covalent bonding interactions with CBPQT2(•+) rings. Different secondary effects (Coulombic repulsions versus C–H···π interactions) are uncovered, and their contributions to both binding strengths associated with trisradical interactions and the kinetics of associations and dissociations are discussed at some length, supported by extensive DFT calculations at the M06-D3 level. Lastly, a fundamental understanding of molecular recognition in radical complexes has relevance when it comes to the design and synthesis of non-equilibrium systems.},
doi = {10.1021/jacs.6b04343},
journal = {Journal of the American Chemical Society},
number = 26,
volume = 138,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
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DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b04343

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