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Title: Development of a frequency regulation duty-cycle for standardized energy storage performance testing

The US DOE Protocol for uniformly measuring and expressing the performance of energy storage systems, first developed in 2012 through inclusive working group activities, provides standardized methodologies for evaluating an energy storage system’s ability to supply specific services to electrical grids. This article elaborates on the data and decisions behind the duty-cycle used for frequency regulation in this protocol. Analysis of a year of publicly available frequency regulation control signal data from a utility was considered in developing the representative signal for this use case. Moreover, this showed that signal standard deviation can be used as a metric for aggressiveness or rigor. From these data, we select representative 2 h long signals that exhibit nearly all of dynamics of actual usage under two distinct regimens, one for average use and the other for highly aggressive use. Our results were combined into a 24-h duty-cycle comprised of average and aggressive segments. The benefits and drawbacks of the selected duty-cycle are discussed along with its potential implications to the energy storage industry.
 [1] ;  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2352-152X; PII: S2352152X16300536
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Energy Storage
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Energy Storage; Journal ID: ISSN 2352-152X
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
25 ENERGY STORAGE; energy storage; performance; frequency regulation; testing; duty-cycle
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1397446