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Title: Correlation between piezoresponse nonlinearity and hysteresis in ferroelectric crystals at nanoscale

Here, the nonlinear response of a ferroic to external fields has been studied for decades, garnering interest for both understanding fundamental physics, as well as technological applications such as memory devices. Yet, the behavior of ferroelectrics at mesoscopic regimes remains poorly understood, and the scale limits of theories developed for macroscopic regimes are not well tested experimentally. Here, we test the link between piezo-nonlinearity and local piezoelectric strain hysteresis, via AC-field dependent measurements in conjunction with first order reversal curve (FORC) measurements on (K,Na)NbO 3 crystals with band-excitation piezoelectric force microscopy. The correlation coefficient between nonlinearity amplitude and the FORC of the polarization switching shows a clear decrease in correlation with increasing AC bias, suggesting the impact of domain wall clamping on the DC measurement case. Further, correlation of polynomial fitting terms from the nonlinear measurements with the hysteresis loop area reveals that the largest correlations are reserved for the quadratic terms, which is expected for irreversible domain wall motion contributions that impact both piezoelectric behavior as well as minor loop formation. These confirm the link between local piezoelectric nonlinearity, domain wall motion and minor loop formation, and suggest that existing theories (such as Preisach) are applicable at these lengthmore » scales, with associated implications for future nanoscale devices.« less
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., Xi'an (China)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., Xi'an (China)
  4. Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 108; Journal Issue: 17; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; electrical hysteresis; polarization; domain walls; electric measurements; atomic force microscopy
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1420600